THEIR DOCTRINES, GENERAL:
A little bit more about their doctrines. It mentions that
the Henricians and others associated with these people. It
also mentions a very interesting statement here. It says,
"The Waldensians preached the doctrine of Christ, while
the Franciscans and the Dominicans preached the person
of Christ." Interesting statement. Mr. Armstrong stated basically
the same thing where he stated, "We're preaching the Gospel
OF Christ, whereas other churches are basically preaching
about the person of Christ." This came out of the Encyclopedia
Brittanica, 11th Edition. "They believed in obeying ALL
of the scriptures, before the continued persecution that was
brought against these people. The Waldenses slowly disappeared
from the chief centers of population and took refuge
in the valleys of the Alps." A couple of other comments
in terms of their doctrine. "Their elders were called Barbes,
which translates meaning 'Uncles'." In the Bible, ministers
are referred to as Elders, so you get some corruption across
the span of history here. "But their elders were called
Barbes. Apparently when a person reached the age of 25 they
could be considered to become a Barb or an elder. Those chosen
on a basis of their character, were schooled.. They
usually spent the winters going to school, three to four years
going to school," almost the equivalent of a college education
today. "They served two years as an apprentice, before
they were ordained. They were ordained by the laying on of
hands, and they also usually traveled in two's, an older
person with a younger person." So the younger person could
learn from the experience of the older person. "Their children
were apparently very astute in understanding the Bible."
They must have been taught quite a bit. We'll look at some
quotes in just a little bit. Towards the end of the 14th or
15th century one of the individuals that was actually a prince,
I believe, made a trip up into these valleys to check out
some rumors that he'd heard about these Waldensians. he'd
heard their kids were born with black throats and had hoofs
for feet, indicating that they were offspring of the Devil.
But he says, "Whenever I saw them they were some of the
most beautiful children I'd ever seen." And he
says, "I learned more scripture from the kids than I'd
known all my life." That was the Encyclopedia Brittanica.
They mention here, "THEY FELT THAT THE ROMAN CHURCH WAS
NOT THE CHURCH OF CHRIST, THAT THE ROMAN CHURCH WAS THE SCARLET
WOMAN OF THE APOCALYPSE. THEY BASICALLY DID NOT BELIEVE IN
THE MASS, THEY DID NOT OBSERVE CHRISTMAS, THEY DID NOT OBSERVE
EASTER, THEY OBSERVED THE HOLYDAYS, THEY OBSERVED THE SABBATH
[Now if this isn't a spiritual/ideological link to the Worldwide
Church of God, I'll eat my hat!!!] We'll read some of these
things shortly. They also, as indicated in a book called "Israel
of the Alps" written in 1875 by a person who had spent quite
a bit of time with them, he mentions that, "They broke
their tithe up into three parts. They gave one third to the
ministry, one third to the poor, and one third to what
they called the wayfarers," which in all probability were
people that were going to the Feast [of Tabernacles, c.f.
Leviticus 23:34-44, Zechariah 14:16-19.] But they did believe
in tithing and they broke it up into three different parts.
Just a few comments from this book entitled "Israel of the
Alps", (we find this book in the Harvard Theological Library.)
It says, "No people of modern times exhibit so much analogy
with the ancient Jewish people as the Vaudois of the Alps
of the Piedmont. No history has more abounded in marvels than
theirs, and no churches has abounded in martyrs than theirs."
Because about a million of these people were put to death
during the persecutions that came on them about 1200 to 1500
A.D. It mentions the persecutions here by Urban III, about
infant Baptism (i.e. they're against it), about [how] they
urged the monks to marry. They didn't believe in celibacy.
One account says, "They really didn't form a new church,
they could not resist, they couldn't receive a new name, but
because they inhabited the valleys they were called Vaudois."
i.e., they couldn't receive a new name other than the name
the Bible calls the true Church by--the Church of God. The
name Vaudois in its original use did not designate a particular
sect but merely [referred to] the Christians of the valleys.
The name Vaudois means in Italian "valley", "men of the valley",
referring to this northern part of Italy. About the ministry,
it mentions here, "besides this, the Barbs received instruction
in some trade or profession by which they might be enabled
to provide for their own ones. Some were artisans, some were
sellers..." It mentions here, "the greater part were physicians
and surgeons", which is an interesting comment. In other words,
they must have been involved with some sort of means of health.
"And all were acquainted with the cultivation of the soil."
And, again, this was written in 1875. So what this individual
is describing is really Waldensians that may no longer be
part of the true Church. But they still retain some of the
ways, mentioned that, "Acquainted with cultivation of the
soil, keeping of flocks, very few of them [the Barbs] were
married, their perpetual missions and their poverty and their
missionary tours, their life always spent amidst warfare and
danger made it easy to understand the reason for not having
a lot of these married." Here is the account of the Prince,
the Duke of Savoy, that went up into these areas to find out
what these people were actually like. And this shows the extent
of the misinformation that was around at this particular time.
The interview of this envoy with the evangelical Christians
of the Alps took place in a hamlet situated in the confines
of this particular area. "It was resolved that the Vaudois
should send a representative of each of their Churches to
their prince when he came up to them. It was during the Conference
that this prince asked to see some of the children that he
might satisfy himself by personal observation, whether they
were really born with black throats, ruff teeth and goats
feet, as the Catholics pretended. 'Is it possible,' he said,
when he saw the number of them of his own eyes, 'that these
are the children of heretics? Is it possible? What charming
creatures they are. They are by far the prettiest children
I have ever seen.' Thus was overthrown the ridiculed prejudice
at this particular time." Now another book on history of the
Christian Church by Waddington, mentions the origins of these
people. It says, "There are some who believe the Vaudois
have enjoyed the uninterrupted integrity of the faith even
from the Apostolic Ages. Others suppose that they originated
from an individual around Turin about the 9th century." A
Dominican, and this is a person involved with the inquisition,
named Ranor Sachow, who was first a member and afterwards
a persecutor of their group, described them in a work that
he writes against them. He said, "There is no group so
dangerous as the Leonists (i.e., followers of Peter de Waldo)
for three reasons. First, it is the most ancient, some
say as old as Sylvester (this was the pope that was involved
with Constantine--325 A.D.)" Again, this person was writing
about 1250 A.D. during the height of this groups' ministry.
"...Others say as old as the Apostles themselves. Secondly,
it is very generally disseminated." In other words it
is a very widespread group. These people have got followers
all over the place. There is no country where it has not
gained some footing. In fact, these people (the Waldensians)
became so prominent that they were able to hold some of their
own religious conventions in southern France, where their
representatives got together." That was another
thing about the people in the valleys, they also, as another
source will tell us, they kept the Sabbath and they also had
a fall meeting every year, in October, (probably the Feast
of Tabernacles). It says, "Thirdly, while other sects are
profane and blasphemous, this one retains the utmost show
of piety. They lived justly before men and believed nothing
respecting God which is not good. Only they blasphemed about
the Roman Church and the clergy, and thus gained many followers.
Again, Saint Bernard admits in substance that there is a sect
which calls itself after no man's name." In other words,
they did not call themselves Waldensians, or Paulicians, or
Arnaldists and so on. "Which pretends to be in the direct
line of Apostolic succession, and which rustic and unlearned
though it is, contends that the Church is wrong." That
is, the Roman Church, the Roman Catholic Church is wrong and
that itself is right. That was the Waldensian Church. "It
must derive" he suggests, "its' origin from the devil, since
there is no other extraction wherewith we can side with them."
That is Saint Bernard writing about these people.
THEIR DOCTRINES, SPECIFIC:
The other thing I wanted to look at briefly here was a book
written in 1851 by Tamar Davis, the woman who was part of
the Seventh Day Baptist Church. And the title of the book
is, The Sabbatarian Churches, Armenian, East Indian, Abecinian,
in Asia and Africa, the Waldenses, Semi-Judaizers, and Sabbatarians,
Anabaptists of Europe, with the Culmination in the United
States." That is the name of the book. Anyway, in chapter
two, entitled "Seventh Day Baptists in Europe," subtitle,
"Waldenses, Albigences, Passaginians". She says she's going
to be concerned about their origin, where they come from.
She mentions that, "The Latin word Valis has been the parent
word of the English word 'valid', and the French-Spanish
word 'Vale', and the Italian word 'Valdesi'.
The designation of the word valley, it means 'inhabitants
of the Valleys'." She traces these people to a person
named Valdo [not Waldo] in the 9th century, also Peter de
Waldo of Leone. But then she mentions, "Thus in Dauphiny,
(this is where Peter de Waldo came from) they were
called Josephists because they followed this individual by
the name of Joseph. In other places they were called Petrobrucians,
from Peter de Bruys. They were also called Cathars, which
means 'Puritans', or in some cases Bonhomie, which means 'Good
men.' Others were called In-Sabbathists, which means Sabbath
keepers. Or they were called Sabbatarians. Some were designated
'Bulgarians', others 'Paulicians.' In other areas they were
called 'Lombardists', 'Teloussians', Albigences'. NEVERTHELESS,
ALL THESE BRANCHES WERE DISTINGUISHED AS KEEPING THE COMMANDMENTS
OF GOD AND THE FAITH OF JESUS CHRIST. One account of these
Albigences was, 'THEY PRACTICED CIRCUMCISION, AND OBSERVED
THE JEWISH SABBATH. 'They savored of Judaism.' The Passaginians
or Passigenes were another branch of the same sect who derived
their name from the country of Passeau, or also passages or
areas that were hard to get to. Their enemies confirm their
identity as well as their great antiquity. One Jesuit priest
who had examined the subject fully and with every opportunity
of knowing, admits the great antiquity of the heretics and
moreover expresses his firm belief that these people, the
Albigences, Passaginians, Arnaldists, Josephists, were none
other than WALDENSES," It says, "AMONG OTHER POINTS,
HE MENTIONS, 'MOREOVER, ALL OF THE HERETICS DESPISED THE FASTS
AND FEASTS OF THE CHURCH, SUCH AS CANDLE MASS OR CHRISTMAS,
EASTER AND THE DOMINICAN DAY (which means Sunday). In
short, all approved ecclesiastical customs for which they
do not find warrant in the scriptures, they don't believe
in.' THEY ALSO SAY THAT GOD ENJOINED REST AND HOLY MEDITATION
ON THE SEVENTH DAY, AND THAT THEY CAN NOT FEEL JUSTIFIED OBSERVING
ANY OTHER DAY." Another individual puts it this way, "The
old Waldenses were not succeeders of the Church of
Rome for neither themselves nor their ancestors had ever embraced
this [Roman Catholic] faith. One person, a popish archbishop
declares that the Waldensian heresy originated from one named
Leo, who in the days of Constantine the Great led a party
of heretics from Rome into the valleys. [Could these actually
be Jewish Christians, remnants of the Roman Church of God
from apostolic times!?! Read on.] POPE GREGORY VII OBSERVES
THAT IT WAS WELL KNOWN IN THE DAYS OF CONSTANTINE THE GREAT,
THAT SOME ASSEMBLIES OF JEWISH CHRISTIANS, BEING PERSECUTED
IN ROME BECAUSE THEY PERSISTED IN OBEDIENCE TO THE LAW OF
MOSES. WANDERED OFF INTO THE VALLEYS WHERE THEIR DESCENDANTS
REMAIN TODAY." So these were some of the comments where
these people came from. Concerning doctrinal sentiments and
religious practices of the Waldenses, it says, "They hold
that none of the ordinances of the Church, (that is, the
established church, i.e., the Catholic Church) which have
been introduced since Christ's' ascension into Heaven ought
to be observed." In other words, everything that has been
introduced since the days of the Apostles and Christ should
not be observed. They mention about God enjoining upon everybody
that they should rest upon the Sabbath and are bound by that.
They condemn all ecclesiastical customs they do not read
of in the Gospel, such as the observance of Candle Mass [Christmas],
Palm Sunday, Adoration of the Cross, and Good Friday, and
the Reconciliation of Penance. These despise the feast of
Easter and the Festivals of Christ and the Saints and they
say one day is as good as another, working on [Catholic] Holydays
when they can do so without being taken notice of." It
says, "Infant Baptism they would not observe because they
did not read about it in the Scripture. THEY KEPT THE JEWISH
SABBATH." She, [Tamar Davis], has some footnotes here.
There is one I wanted to read. It says, "That Catholic
writers regard the Dominical Day as a festival Day", talking
about Sunday, "can be easily proved. That they regard as
such to this day in Catholic countries is an undeniable fact.
When they speak of the festivals of the Church, [the Catholics],
include Sunday as much as Christmas, Palm Sunday or Easter.
They smile, [that is, talking about the Catholic
authorities,] when they hear learned Protestant sages attempt
to prove from the Scriptures either the Abrogation or the
change of the Sabbath." In other words, THEY KNOW who
changed the Sabbath. "We have also a host of Protestants
in the earlier part of the Reformation who acknowledge that
the observance of the first day [Sunday] had no other foundation
than the authority of the Church." [I.e., the Catholic
Church.] "These were early Protestant reformers, among
whom is the celebrate John Calvin, who says, 'The Old Fathers
put in the place of the Sabbath the day which we call Sunday.'"
That was John Calvin being quoted in Tamar Davis' book.
King Charles I, of England, declares that the celebration
of the feast of Easter was instituted by the same authority
that changed the Sabbath into the Lord's Day, or Sunday. For
it will not be found in Scripture where Saturday is discharged
to be kept. [I.e., where Saturday is canceled and Sunday is
substituted in place of it.] "Therefore, says King Charles,
'My opinion is that those who will not keep this feast may
well return to the observance of Saturday, and refuse the
weekly Sunday, since it was the Church's authority to change
the one and institute the other." So these were comments made
by people living back at the time of the Reformation.
Describing the Waldenses as people, it says, "These heretics
are known by their manners and conversation, where they are
orderly and modest in their behavior and deportment. They
neither indulge in finery of attire nor are they remarkable
for being mean..." In other words, they are balanced.
"They avoid commerce, that they may be free from falsehood
and deceit. They get their livelihood from manual industry,
as day laborers or mechanics, and THEIR TEACHERS ARE WEAVERS
AND/OR TAYLORS. They are not anxious about amassing riches
but contend themselves with the necessities of life. They
are chaste, temperate, sober. They abstain from anger. Even
when they work they either learn or teach. In like manner
also their women are modest, avoiding backbiting, foolish
jesting, and levity of speech, especially abstaining from
lies or swearing." Very interesting comments about these
people. What is interesting is that she, [Tamar Davis,] brings
out the fact that they did keep the Sabbath, they kept the
Holydays, they kept the Law of Moses.
One of the last things here, a comment, some comments recorded
by one of the monks that was interrogating, apparently, one
of their ministers. The monk, named Gregory, he says, "By
Anthony, you must be a liar and a deceiver for I have been
credibly informed that yourself and all your friends were
of the accursed race of Israel." Answer: "That is false,
we are all honest Frenchmen and Christians, followers of Jesus."
"No, but you're Jews, for instead of Baptizing your infant
children you have all your males circumcised." Answer:
"You do very wrong to accuse us of that practice for it
is something of which we are entirely innocent." "Do you Baptize
your children then?" "We do not, neither do we circumcise
them." "Never the less you must be Jews since you say the
Law of Moses is still binding." ("Well we say the Ten Commandments
are still binding.") [Read Matthew 5:17-19, where
Jesus Christ says the Law is still binding. The Church of
God under Mr. Armstrong as well as these Christians back in
France interpreted Matthew 5:17-19 in the most literal way
it could be interpreted, with no allowance for new covenant
changes documented in the book of Acts and Hebrews. Such a
literal interpretation, while ignoring or misunderstanding
the documented new covenant changes made by Peter and Paul
under Jesus Christ's inspiration, points the believer to only
one possible law, the old covenant Law God gave to Moses.
I understand this mindset because I was an old covenant Christian
under Mr. Armstrong, and had to explain my reason for practicing
the literal Ten Commandments to the military to obtain conscientious
objector status.] "So instead of observing festivals of
the Holy Church and honoring the Holy Day of the Lord, on
which day he arose from the dead, you are accustomed to meet
for worship on the old Sabbath or Saturday." "WE DO INDEED
REST AND ATTEND DIVINE WORSHIP ON THE SEVENTH DAY AS GOD COMMANDED."
And so on went the discussion with this person. What are
they guilty of? Well, basically, not going along with what
the "established" church had to say. There are plenty of sources
through this period of time that tell us about the Waldensians,
tell us about the Albigencians. They were persecuted, they
were hounded, basically what happened, the Albigences kind
of disappeared from history about the end of the 1300's. [That's
what usually happens when you murder enough of them.] The
Waldenses were persecuted, in fact, in some cases driven from
the valleys. We find bits and pieces of evidence of these
people showing up in Germany, showing up in Holland, showing
up in England, in the 14 and 1500's A.D. There is an account
of the Waldenses in the 1500's fighting their way back in.
And as one of the authors says, "It seems like a very different
people than those that were persecuted in the 1200's." There
are Waldensian churches around today, in Italy, we had one
in southern California not too far from where the college,
[Ambassador College], is. You don't hear about them doing
anything though. Their light virtually went out. [No, their
light probably went on and they saw the new covenant for what
it was!] To my knowledge they don't keep the Sabbath anymore.
I'm not totally sure what their other doctrines are today.
But as far as in the 1200's, it is fairly easy to pin down
that they kept the Sabbath, kept the Holy Days, [of Leviticus
23], they tithed, they were against infant baptism, against
the Trinity, against all kinds of things their church stands
In the old Ambassador College Correspondence Course they actually
published a picture of the emblem of the Waldensians. It shows
a Lampstand, with seven stars around it, and [an arrow] actually
points to the Fourth Star. The question is, did they know
[that] they were the Thyatira Church, or Era of the Church
[of God]? The way the emblem is put together, it would appear
that way. Whether they did of did not, it is kind of hard
to say from this point in history.
The Waldensians are still around, but they were persecuted
[back then], in fact, UPWARDS OF A MILLION OF THESE PEOPLE
DIED. Again, whether or not they were all true Waldensians,
remains to be seen. This is what we read about them in the
latter several verses of Revelation 2:20-23, talking about
a woman that was going to seduce them. Apparently there were
people with the Church, the Waldensian Church, that did not
go along with the Doctrines. There were some of these people
recorded that they kept the Sabbath, but then would show up
every Sunday, in the Catholic Church in the region, and sit
in the Church, pretending to go along, compromising. These
people were also very trustworthy, they were given political
jobs by some of the princes in whose districts they lived.
They got involved [in politics] that way. They compromised
their beliefs. And they got involved in bearing arms, literally
fighting their way back into these valleys, in some cases,
from which they were driven. As a result of apparently compromising
their beliefs they were persecuted very dramatically towards
the 14 and 1500's A.D. from what we find, very briefly, is
that we have a Church that becomes very prominent about the
early 1100's, emerging out of a textile area in southern France.
Thyatira, in Turkey, is identified as being an area linked
with fabrics. Their works, very small at the beginning. [Peter
Valdo], Peter de Bruys, Henri, were forerunners, but Peter
de Waldo and his disciples you have them establishing a college,
actually up in these valleys, that trained ministers. They
actually established over TWO HUNDRED SCHOOLS IN SOUTHERN
EUROPE! Before they kind of disappeared from the scene they
became very prominent. These people traveled all over, apparently
preaching, translating the Bible into the common languages,
apparently writing on different subjects. The Catholic Church
became so uncomfortable that they instituted not only the
Albigencian Crusade but also excommunicated all these people
(as if they ever were in the Catholic Church), and actually
started a false movement with people imitating some of the
very doctrines of these people, in the persons of the Dominican
and Franciscan Friars. But as a result of persecution which
came down very heavily, in the latter part of the 12th century
and continuing up into the 15th century, you find these people
scattering. Remnants of them today are still in these Alpine
valleys, but they don't hold to the number of beliefs that
they did hold to at that particular time [between 1100 and
1500 A.D.] We find them appearing then up in Germany, up in
Holland, and up in England, and this is where we are going
to pick up the next Era of God's Church, the Sardis Era, which
actually begins in the 1500's. Whenever you find some of the
first Churches appearing, the ministers appear on record in
England and in Holland. So we will pick things up at that
particular time. The message again, to the Thyatira Era, one
of the clearest indications of what the doctrines of God's
Church down through the history have been, and also one of
the most sober warnings for the Church that begins to compromise.
It talks about [Revelation 2] 'the woman Jezebel seducing
the servants' and about how God would kill their children.
Again it is a very sobering lesson for us today, not to compromise,
and to get busy doing the Work that God has called us to do,
to endure to the end. That's it for tonight.
Sources For Thyatira Material
Ambassador College Correspondence Course (old course--lesson
Uses: Encyclopedia Brittanica (11th Edition):
"A Critical History of the Sabbath and Sunday" by Lewis
"Ancient Vallenses and Albigences" by Faber
"History of Baptists" by Armitage
"Schaff-Herzog Religious Encyclopedia" article: "Bohemian
History of the Sabbath, by J. N. Andrews
History of the Waldenses, by J. A. Wylie (1870's)
Israel of the Alps, by Muston (1875)
History of the Christian Church, by Waddington
[To access information about these books you can contact Dr.
Samuele Bocchiocchi, Professor of Religion, Andrews University
or Professor Daniel Augsburger at firstname.lastname@example.org
At this point I would like to include an email I recently
received from Professor Augsburger about the Waldensians.
"From: Daniel Augsburger email@example.com
I received your email some time ago while I was working very
hard on material for my course on Luther. Now I can breathe
The issue of Sabbathkeeping by the Waldensians is very complex.
The inquisitors say that there was no problem on Sunday keeping
[by the time many of the Sabbathkeepers had been killed off
by these same "inquisitors"! My comment. Please excuse me.].
So many must have kept Sunday. On the other hand we find evidence
of Sabbath keeping in regions where there were nuclei of Waldensians.
This means that some kept the Sabbath.
I wish I could give a more definite answer. We unfortunately
do not have the evidence. We know that the Waldensians' major
conflict with the church [the Catholic Church] was that they
preached without ecclesiastical permission.
In Italy they were very ciritical of the papacy. In the South
of France they were more evangelical, devoted to a life of
poverty. There was no theological unity among all the groups
but they all shared the love of Scriptures.
DATE:1000 A.D. - 1600 A.D.
BACKGROUND: The name Thyatira means 'sweet savor of
contrition' in the Greek language. Thyatira was a city in
the province of Asia Minor on the boundary of Lydia and Mysia.
Thyatira has no illustrious history and is scarcely mentioned
by ancient writers. It was one of the many Macedonian colonies
established in Asia Minor, in the sequel of the destruction
of the Persian Empire by Alexander. The waters of the city
are said to be so well adapted for dyeing that in no place
can the scarlet cloth be so brilliantly and permanently dyed
as here. So, in Acts 16:14, Lydia, the first convert of Paul
at Philippi, is mentioned as a seller of purple from Thyatira.
The principal deity of the city was Apollo, who was worshipped
as the sun-god. A priestess of Artemas is also mentioned in
the ancient inscriptions. She evidently lived just outside
the city at a famous Chaldean sanctuary. She is the Jezebel
mentioned in Revelation 2, who caused many to compromise.
She was also a type of the church which caused much damage
to the true Church during the Thyatira Era.
NAMES: Just as in previous eras, true Christians of
this period were given many different names by their enemies.
They referred to themselves as 'the Church of God' or 'congregation'
or simply Christians. It was common to name these 'heretics'
after either their leader or the region they occupied. The
following names can be found among the historical records:
Petrobrusians (Peter de Bruys), Henricians (Henry), Albigences
(Albi in France), Waldenses (Walden in France--although true
origin is in dispute), Lollards (unknown origin), Passaginians
(mountain passes or passages), Arnaldists, (Arnald Hott),
Josephists (Joseph), Paterines (latter Cathars). Everyone
labelled by the above names were certainly not a part of the
true Church, since in many cases these terms were rather broadly
used by the Catholic Church against any heretics in that area.
- 1096, Bogomils & Paulicians in Dauphiny.
- 1104-1124, Peter de Bruys.
- 1124-1149, Henry
- 1161-1217, Peter de Waldo
- 1179, Laterin Council forbids preaching by Waldenses.
- 1184, Pope Lucius excommunicates all heretics.
- 1215, Laterin IV Council forbade reading the Bible.
- 1315, Walter the Lollard preaches the gospel in England
- 1401, Statute passed against the Lollards.
- 1435, Sabbath keepers in Norway.
- 1585, End of 1260 years.
- 1588, Sabbath keepers in Transylvania
- Peter de Bruys
- Henry, disciple of Peter
- Peter de Waldo
- Walter the Lollard
- Arnald Hott
FURTHER HISTORICAL EVIDENCE
TOWNLEY'S SCRIPTURE HISTORY orAn INTRODUCTION to the LITERARY
HISTORY of the BIBLE by JAMES TOWNLEY (1832) pages 142-146
BABYLON MYSTERY RELIGION by RALPH WOODROW [not included.]
Chapter 14: The Inhuman Inquisition Bibliography for Chapters
[To read a very interesting
article which shows where the Baptist and Anabaptist
churches in France during the 1200s AD and going on into the
1600’s AD England probably came from, log onto http://www.unityinchrist.com/history/BaptistHistory.htm. It shows that the Baptist churches may
have actually come from the Sabbatarian Churches of God
which came from Asia Minor, into southern Europe through
the Bogomils, to southern France.]