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Chapter 2


The Truman & Eisenhower Presidencies


New President, New Advisors, New Foreign Policy,


Henry Wallace had powerful political enemies in the Democratic Party, Party bosses such as Jesse Jones, Party Treasurer and oil millionaire Edwin Pauley, just to name two, who had caused his defeat as Roosevelt’s running mate.  And Truman’s future ‘Assistant Presidential Advisor’ James “Jimmy” Byrnes was one of them, Byrnes, the Senator from South Carolina who had been Truman’s mentor in his early years in the Senate.  Byrnes’ training from South Carolina was in the environment of White Supremacy and Segregation.  He was responsible for blocking a Federal Anti-Lynching bill in 1938.  He was a powerful U.S. Senator, and it was said of him, “If you want anything done on the Hill, see Jimmy Byrnes.”  He was staunchly anti-communist, and thus anti-Soviet Union, which made sense, since Jimmy Byrnes had been known for breaking up labor unions, and thus was connected to and the friend of big business on the corporate side.  He was not a man for the common man, as Wallace and Roosevelt had been, nor did he stand for social justice.  Upon Roosevelt’s death, Truman, admitting his utter ignorance in foreign affairs asked Byrnes, his former mentor, to fill him in about just about everything, which Byrnes gladly did.  Truman inherited Roosevelt’s recently appointed Secretary of State, who interestingly, had loyalties toward big business and thus he too had an anti-communist, anti-Soviet bias.  This was Secretary of State Edward Stettinius (1944-1945), former U.S. Steel Chairman of the Board, who “painted a picture of Soviet deception and perfidy” to the new President, reinforcing everything Winston Churchill was now fervently feeding Truman about how Stalin and the Soviets couldn’t be trusted.  Next comes the U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union, Averill Harriman, recently returned from Moscow, who now “warned that the U.S. was facing a barbarian invasion of Europe and urged Truman to stand firm” against poor Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov.  Backing up these ‘advisors’ to Truman was a cabal of “vociferous critics of the Soviet Union,” all anti-socialist.  Ambassador Harriman was the son of a railroad tycoon.  Included in this cabal were international bankers, Wall Street and Washington lawyers, corporate executives, including Dean Acheson, Robert Lovett, John McCloy, John Foster Dulles and his brother (future head of the C.I.A.) Allen Dulles, Nelson Rockefeller, Paul Nitze “and General Motors President Charles Wilson, who as head of the War Production Board had said “The United States needs a permanent war-economy.”  The start of the Military Industrial Complex anyone?  All these men had served under Roosevelt, but FDR was a strong enough leader not to let others like this infect his judgment---truly a great leader, along with Henry Wallace.  But Roosevelt was dead, and Wallace was out of the political picture.  All these men who were now advising and influencing Truman shared a deep hatred of socialism (naturally, because socialism and communism fostered trade and labor unions).  As seen by Truman’s speech in 1941 on the Senate floor, whereby he called for the U.S. to support either Nazi Germany or the Russians, depending on who was winning or loosing, so they could kill each other off, reflected the crass and shallow understanding Truman had of world affairs and what the people of the Soviet Union had been through, as well as what the people within the British and French colonies had been through.  Whereas Roosevelt’s and Wallace’s foreign policy reflected a peace-fostering empathy for these peoples and nations, Truman’s future foreign policy which was shaping up under these ‘advisors’ was pointing the United States straight toward that of becoming a belligerent, bullying American Empire, just as we were about to become the strongest economic and military superpower in the world.


Truman Learns Of The Atomic Bomb


As Vice President no one, not even Roosevelt, had ever thought to inform Harry Truman about the Manhattan Project, where the United States was designing and building the most powerful and devastating “explosive” known to man, the atomic bomb.  Jimmy Byrnes now briefed Truman about the progress we were making toward building and testing the first atomic bomb.  He also informed President Truman that being the only nation on earth to possess such weapons would put the United States in a position “to dictate our own terms at the end of the war.”  Which, by the way, neither Roosevelt nor Wallace would ever have done, using atomic and later hydrogen bombs to dictate and bully our own terms against the Soviets and Stalin---Roosevelt and Wallace knew better than to pursue such brinkmanship. 


Truman Meets Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov


On the 23rd of April, 1945 Truman met with Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov and verbally blasted the poor Soviet foreign minister for their supposed breach of the Yalta agreements over Poland, as Molotov tried in vain to explain Stalin’s and the Soviet position with regards to Poland being a serious security concern.  Molotov remarked to Truman “I’ve never been talked to like that in my life.”  Whereby Truman snapped back at him, “Carry out your agreements and you won’t get talked to like that.”  Molotov stormed out of the room.  Admiral William Leahy, Roosevelt’s chief military advisor had remarked to FDR that the Yalta agreement about Poland, due to its wording, would be nearly impossible for the Soviets to break.  As stated before, a Soviet-friendly government in Poland was essential to their security concerns.  President Truman had just belligerently trampled all over that.  The seeds of mistrust between Washington and Moscow were being sown right from the start of the Truman Presidency.  Most of our top military officers, generals, including Army Chief of Staff George Marshall and Secretary of War Henry Stimpson were against Truman’s antagonistic view and actions toward the Soviets.  But Truman wasn’t listening to the voice of reason.  But then, for a brief period of time, a historic moment in time, Truman (due to Stalin’s response to the Molotov affair) realized his tough-guy tactics weren’t working.  Truman had several meetings with former Soviet Ambassador Joseph Davies, and “Davies noted how fundamentally the relationship had changed in the last six weeks with the British [Churchill, primarily] acting as instigators, and [he] warned that if the Russians decide that the U.S. and Britain are ganging up on them, they’ll respond by out-toughing the West…But he assured Truman that when approached with generosity and friendliness, the Soviets respond with even greater generosity.”  A close friend, now deceased, an ex-Radio Liberty Russian language translator in charge of interviewing Soviet Russian émigré’s [escaped from the Soviet Union] had told me, “The Russians are a very warm-hearted people, but they are very security conscious.”  As the war drew to a close, Truman, unlike Roosevelt and Wallace, had no empathy for what the Soviet people had been through.  Roosevelt had suffered with polio all his life.  John Fitzgerald Kennedy, had also suffered constantly from his severe back injuries when PT-109 was blown out from under him in the Pacific during the war, as well as suffering from Addison’s disease.  Kennedy had developed this empathy for the Soviets shortly before his assassination.  At the Commencement Address at the American University, June 10, 1963 (after the Cuban Missile Crisis) he said this, “No nation in the history of battle ever suffered more than the Soviet Union in the 2nd World War, at least 20 million lost their lives, countless millions of homes and families were burned or sacked.  A third of the nation’s territory, including two-thirds of its industrial base was turned into a wasteland, a loss equivalent of this country east of Chicago.”  In this speech by JFK, it showed where obviously he intended to warm up relations with the Soviets and Nikita Khrushchev, with the purpose of the two leaders ending the Cold War.  This fact is backed up in Roy A. Medvedev and Zhores A. Medvedev’s book “KHRUSHCHEV: THE YEARS IN POWER”, p. 102.  We’ll get into this a little bit later.


The War Ends In Europe


Germany officially surrendered on May 7th, 1945, which meant that the Soviets, per their agreement with Roosevelt at Yalta, would declare war against and enter into the war against the Empire of Japan around August 8th, 1945.  The most important Conference between the Allies was coming up, to be held in a suburb of bombed-out Berlin, Potsdam, in July of 1945.  Both Truman and Byrnes were waiting for news of our first a-bomb detonation in the desert of Alamogordo, New Mexico.  Truman had arranged for the summit to take place two weeks later than originally planned, hoping “the bomb” would be successfully detonated before negotiations with Stalin began.  Robert Oppenheimer said, “We were under incredible pressure to get it done before the Potsdam meeting.”  Obviously, Oppenheimer knew by now this was a political/foreign policy thing, to be used against the Soviets.  This was just the beginning of Truman’s nuclear brinkmanship aimed at the Soviets.  On the 16th of July, 1945, as Truman was touring bombed-out Berlin, our scientists at Los Alamos detonated the first atomic bomb.


The Atomic Bombing Of Japan


Curtis “Demon” LeMay’s terribly effective and destructive fire-bombing of over 100 Japanese cities, reducing them to charred rubble, was seen by some very key scientists, such as Leo Szilard, Harold Urey and astronomer Walter Bartky, they saw the atomic bomb as a very terrifying and frightening next step to what LeMay had done with his B-29 bombers, and the implications terrified them.  And so those three sought to have a meeting with Truman.  They knew as all our top generals and admirals knew by then, including MacArthur, LeMay, Nimitz, Eisenhower, Admiral King, and George Marshall, that Japan was finished and ready to surrender, the Japanese only wanted a guarantee for Emperor Hirohito’s safety.  These and quite a few other scientists from the Manhattan Project didn’t want to see us let the Atomic Genie out of the bottle, just to merely bomb an already defeated enemy that was already putting out serious peace overtures to us through the Soviets.  But these three scientists, in their attempts to see Truman, got shunted off to South Carolina to see Jimmy Byrnes.  To quote Leo Szilard, “Mr. Byrnes knew at that time, as the rest of the government knew, that Japan was essentially defeated.  He [Byrnes] was much concerned about the spreading of Russian influence in Europe, and of our demonstrating and possessing the bomb would make Russia more manageable.”  There’s the bottom line right there, out of Jimmy Byrnes’ own mouth, that the Truman administration wanted to drop atomic bombs on Japan as a pretext for ending the war, but really the real reason was to cower the Soviets, make them more “manageable.”  Another group of scientists in Chicago drafted a report warning that a nuclear attack [on Japan]…would institute a nuclear arms race with the Soviet Union.  This report also pointed out that the U.S. would not be able to maintain a monopoly on nuclear bomb technology and manufacture.  Their warning was prophetic, but fell on deaf ears, and was squashed from the top by General Groves.  We dropped the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima with devastating results.  But Japan didn’t surrender as Truman had hoped.  Japan didn’t even give a hint of surrendering.  We dropped a second atomic bomb, a plutonium implosion bomb, on Nagasaki on August 9th, 1945.  Up to this point we had been fire-bombing Japanese cities to charred rubble anyway.  The Japanese, in reality, didn’t see much difference between one bomber dropping one bomb and one city destroyed, or 250 bombers destroying one city.  But on August 9th, 1945, Stalin, true to his word to Roosevelt to invade Japan three months after the end of the war in Europe, attacked the Japanese Kwantung army on three fronts that very same day, August 9th.  An estimated 700,000 Japanese soldiers were killed, wounded and captured, as Stalin’s 1.5 million-man Red Army overran Japanese held Manchuria, Korea, the Kurile Islands and Sakhalin Island.  General Masakzu Kawabe, Japanese Army Deputy Chief of Staff said, “It was only in a gradual manner that the horrible wreckage that had been made of Hiroshima became known.  In comparison, the Soviet entry into the war was a great shock, because we had been in constant fear of it, with a vivid imagination that the vast Red Army forces in Europe were now being turned against us.”  Prime Minister Kantaro Suzuki gives us the real reason Japan surrendered, when he said, “Japan must surrender immediately or the Soviet Union will take not only Manchuria, Korea, Karafuto [southern half of Sakhalin Island, all of which the Red Army did take very rapidly], but also Hokkaido.  This would destroy the foundation of Japan.  We must end the War when we can deal with the U.S.”  On August 14th, with the Japanese still desperately fighting the Red Army, Emperor Hirohito publicly called for all Japanese forces to surrender.  Looking now a little more accurately, how the Red Army was chewing it’s way toward the Japanese mainland, their home islands, is it any wonder why the Japanese so graciously welcomed the U.S. military onto their home islands without a shot being fired, their sacred homeland?  The real reason we dropped those two atomic bombs on Japan was two-fold.  First reason, to bluster and cower the Soviet Union into doing what we wanted them to in Europe and Asia, what Stalin called “blackmail” which he said the Soviets wouldn’t submit to.  The second reason was that Truman was attempting to get Japan to surrender before the Soviet Red Army invaded Japanese territory.  Truman was trying to worm his way out of the territorial and economic concessions promised by Roosevelt for Soviet entry into the Pacific war against Japan.  Harry Truman was leading the United States down a potentially suicidal nuclear arms race with the Soviet Union.  The detonation of those two atomic bombs, to quote the future Soviet Foreign Minister Andre Gromyko’s son Anatoly, who recalled his father telling him that, “Hiroshima set the heads of the Soviet military spinning.”  Mistrust of Washington in Moscow grew in leaps and bounds from then on.  Nikita Khrushchev says in his memoirs, “Stalin had formed good relations with Eisenhower and even better ones with Roosevelt.  He had bad relations with Churchill and even worse ones with Montgomery….I think Stalin was more sympathetic to Roosevelt than Churchill because Roosevelt seemed to have considerable understanding for our problems.” [KHRUASHCHEV REMEMBERS, pp. 220, 222]  Roosevelt had empathy for the Russians and what they were going through.  There you have it, right out of Nikita Khrushchev’s mouth.


In December 1945 Henry Wallace tried to get President Truman to take control of America’s atomic weapons away from General Leslie Groves who still had unilateral control over them.  It was Groves who had advocated a pre-emptive nuclear strike against any other nation trying to develop nuclear weapons.  Wallace’s concern was aptly portrayed in the classic movie “Dr. Strangelove” by General Ripper (aka Groves), who launched S.A.C. B-52 bombers at the Soviet Union in a pre-emptive nuclear strike.  In the movie scenario, after some tense moments, all the B-52 bombers were successfully recalled, except for one (whose radio was out), which proceeded on to its target inside the Soviet Union.  On the other hand, back to the present in 1945, the war-torn and devastated Soviets were hoping to maintain the Alliance, holding all their other Communist allies in check, hoping in vain for the war-reparation payments Roosevelt had promised.  Truman had given the British a whopping 4 billion dollar loan, and the Soviet Union next to nothing, reneging on Roosevelt’s promise.  The Soviet Union was in tatters, their people in abject poverty, while the U.S., having only lost 405,000 dead compared to the Soviet Union’s 27,000,000 dead, held two-thirds of the world’s gold reserves and three-quarters of its invested capital. 




In March 1946 Winston Churchill, like an old lion coming out of its lair to stir things up and make trouble, traveled to Truman’s home town to give a devastatingly incendiary speech accusing the Soviet Union of dropping an “iron curtain” across eastern Europe.  Stalin responded by accusing Churchill of “being in bed with the war-mongers who followed the racial theory that only English-speakers could decide the fate of the whole world.”  Wallace, a month later, attempted to defuse all this incendiary rhetoric and said in a speech, “The only way to defeat Communism in the world is to do a better and smoother job of production and distribution.  Let’s make it a clean race, but above all a peaceful race in the service of humanity.  The source of all our mistakes is fear.  Russia fears Anglo-Saxon encirclement [as evidenced by Stalin’s response to Churchill’s speech], we fear Communist penetration.  Out of fear great nations have been acting like cornered beasts, begging only of survival.  The common people of the world will not tolerate imperialism, even under enlightened Anglo-Saxon atomic bomb auspices.  The destiny of the English speaking people is to serve the world, not dominate it.”  I’s say we’ve been guilty of the latter over the past 80 years since 1945, dominating it, while pretending to serve it.  But only two months after Wallace’s speech Truman decided to proceed with two nuclear tests in the Marshall Islands, “Shot-Able” 20 kilotons, B-29 dropped, and “Shot-Baker,” an underwater detonation, on 25 July 1946, 21 kilotons, that destroyed an entire fleet of warships anchored there for the test.  Two months later, Henry Wallace in September 1946 at New York’s Madison Square Garden, in a vain attempt to stop the madness, said this, “The tougher we get, the tougher the Russians will get.  We can get cooperation once Russia understands that our primary objective is neither saving the British Empire nor purchasing oil in the Near East with American soldiers.  Under friendly peaceful competition the Russian world and the American world will gradually become more alike.  The Russians will be forced to grab more and more of the personal freedoms, [which by the way Khrushchev was attempting to give Soviet citizens during the 1950s], and we shall become more and more absorbed with the problems of social-economic justice…”




Birth Of The Truman Doctrine


Through the period of late 1946 through 1947 the British army had been busy fighting and then successfully overthrowing the popular leftist National Liberation Front in Greece, and restored the monarchy under a right-wing dictatorship (which by the way was made up of wealthy businessmen and others who had been Nazi-collaborators during World War II in Greece, while the communist-partisans had been fighting the Nazis).  This set off a communist-led uprising which grew into a civil war.  The British, being severely strapped for cash, asked the United States to step in and take over.  Harry Truman, not missing a beat, lay out America’s new vision as the world’s policeman, giving a speech which was to become the foundation of the Truman Doctrine, which essentially expanded the Monroe Doctrine (no European or outside influence in the Western Hemisphere) to encompass the whole world.  It linked the fate of the people and nations of the whole world to the security concerns of the United States.  He used the U.S. intervention in Greece as a stepping-stone to establishing the Truman Doctrine as official U.S. foreign policy.  We’ll soon see the apparatus Truman created for enforcing the Truman Doctrine on the peoples and nations of the world, both during times of peace and war.  He said in his speech, “The very existence of the Greek State is today threatened by the terrorist activities of several thousand armed men led by Communists.  At the present moment in world history nearly every nation must choose between alternative ways of life.  I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.”  We have an example of Cause & Effect here.  Two months later, Stalin reacts, sponsoring a Communist coup (May 1947) overthrowing the democratically elected government of Hungary.  The New York Times called this one correctly when it wrote, “The coup in Hungary is Russia’s answer to our action in Greece and Turkey.  And it clearly contributed to the Soviet decision [which General George Marshall had previously predicted] to impose a stricter order across eastern Europe.”  As seen previously, this was not the original intention of Stalin nor the Soviet Union.  Our belligerence had brought the Soviets to these actions.


Birth of the C.I.A.


Now for “Truman’s Apparatus” for enforcing his Truman Doctrine, which, by the way, I’ll let Oliver Stone describe for us, as he does a better job.  “In July of ’47 Truman pushed through the National Security Act, which created a vast new bureaucracy headed by the anti-Soviet hardliner James Forrestal, as this country’s first Secretary of Defense.  The Act also created the Central Intelligence Agency, which was given four functions, three of them dealing with the collection of, analysis and dissemination of intelligence.  It was the fourth function that would prove the most dangerous, a vaguely worded passage that would allow the C.I.A. to perform “other functions and duties related to intelligence affecting national security as the President saw fit.”  The C.I.A. would use that vague wording to conduct hundreds of covert operations around the world, including more than 80 during Truman’s second term.  It’s earliest success was to subvert Italy’s 1948 election to ensure victory over the Communist Party…democracy was apparently a virtue when it served U.S. interests.  Sometimes referred to as




the C.I.A. was truly the beginning of a new America, but based upon a secret State that would grow exponentially over the following decades…” [quote from “Oliver Stone’s Untold History Of The United States.”]  To show just how Truman was to use this new “apparatus” we’ll use one more Oliver Stone quote, considering current events in the Ukraine this one is a corker, there’s two sides to every story, and Vladimir Putin  certainly has his side being reflected here.  “In the summer of ’48, following the Czechoslovakian coup, Truman approved the dramatic escalation of global covert action to include guerilla operations in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.  One project went to creating a guerilla army code named “Nightingale” in Ukraine, which originally had been set up by the Nazis in 1941, made up of ultra-nationalist Ukrainians.  These groups [in 1948] now wreaked havoc in the famine-wracked region where Soviet control was loose, carrying out the murder of thousands of Jews, Soviets and Poles who opposed a separate Ukrainian state.  Beginning in 1949, for five years the C.I.A. parachuted Ukrainian infiltrators back into the region [i.e. this occurring between 1949 and 1953!].  To the Soviet mind, it was as if they had infiltrated guerillas into the Canadian or Mexican borders of the United States, and signaled the lengths to which the U.S. was willing to go to dislodge Soviet control in their own border areas and sphere of interests.”  [ibid. THE UNTOLD HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES] 




In Henry Wallace’s final election bid, which sadly he lost, he said in a speech, “The people of the world must see that there is another America than the Truman-led, Wall Street dominated, military-backed group that is blackening the name of democracy all over the world.”  In 1948 Robert Oppenheimer (leading scientist in the Manhattan Project that developed the first atomic bomb) said, “Our [nuclear] monopoly is like a cake of ice melting in the sun.”  Henry Wallace had previously warned in 1945, “Truman and his group were terribly wrong to assume that the U.S. would have a monopoly on the bomb.”  In September 1949 the Soviet Union detonated their first atomic bomb.


1950: Cold War Goes Hot, The Korean War


Considering everything the U.S. was doing, numerous nuclear test detonations (over 300 by 1950), C.I.A. operations (Nightingale anyone?) within the Soviet Union and around the world, is it any wonder that Joe Stalin wouldn’t desire to push back, pay-back time, in a serious manner?  And that is exactly what he did.  Both the Soviet-installed dictator in North Korea (Kim Il-Sung) and the U.S. backed dictator in South Korea (Syngman Rhee) had been itching to unite all of Korea by force.  Stalin gave Kim Il-Sung the opportunity to strike first.  Stalin’s motives were plain by what he told Kim Il-Sung when he said to him, “The war was a way to get back at the arrogant behavior of the United States in Europe, the Balkans, the Middle East, and especially its decision to form N.A.TO.”  Our “arrogance” under Truman cost dearly in American lives during a war which never needed to start, except that we had really riled Josef Stalin, a man not to be trifled with.  We lost 36,516 American lives during the Korean War, not to mention millions of Koreans and Chinese, both soldiers and civilians who lost their lives.  In this case, Truman took the bait, applying his Truman Doctrine, and brought the United States into this “Police Action.”  Harry Truman was, with his atomic bombs, like a little boy who had gotten his hands on a .45 caliber six-shooter, and took it into town to scare all the folks.


By 1947 the U.S. had detonated 13 atomic bombs, and 50 atomic bombs by 1948 (before the Soviets had detonated their first), and 300 atomic bombs by 1950.  We were the new American Empire, the most powerful military and economic superpower in the world.  That brings us to Dwight David Eisenhower, after we look at a few nuclear detonation statistics from the Truman-Eisenhower Presidencies. 


Some of the Nuclear Tests Since 1945

Under Presidents Harry Truman And Dwight Eisenhower


Germany surrendered 8 May 1945.  Intelligence sources under General Groves concluded Germany didn’t develop an atomic bomb.  However, the War continued in the Pacific.


“Little Boy” (uranium bomb)                                                   15 kilotons

dropped on Hiroshima, 8:15am, 6 August 1945


“Fat Man” (plutonium implosion bomb)                                   20 kilotons

dropped on Nagasaki, 11:02am, 9 August 1945


With a yield similar to Trinity, this weapon (“Fat Man”) would be considered a nominal atomic bomb and provide a blueprint for all nuclear weapons. 


11 months later…


“Operation Crossroads”


Carried out at Bikini Atoll to test the effects of atomic weapons on an unmanned fleet of WWII ships, from battleships, aircraft carriers to landing craft and submarines all floating, anchored on the surface around the atoll, total number of ships, 185, German, Japanese, American.


          “Shot Able”

          B-29 dropped                                                                 20 kilotons


          “Shot Baker”

          underwater detonation, 25 July 1946                                                                                                                                              21 kilotons

          far greater damage done


“Operation Sandstone”


purpose:  to test new weapons designs.  3 devices using same amount of plutonium as “Fat Boy”, but “boosted” kilotonage by some means.  Two years after Crossroads, authority was given by President Truman to proceed with Operation Sandstone.  This new technology doubled the force of the bomb using same amount of plutonium as used on Nagasaki.  It increased our ability to stockpile nuclear weapons. 


          X-Ray                                                                             37 kilotons

          15 April 1948, 6:17am


          Yoke                                                                     49 kilotons

          1 May 1948


results of Sandstone affected design of future weapons.


Los Alamos National Laboratory 2-Division, Sandia Base, located at Albuquerque New Mexico at Kirkland AFB.  Sandia’s primary purpose was to engineer and manufacture deliverable nuclear weapons.  The Sandia Corporation built weapons designed by Los Alamos.  Sandia brought assembly-line technology and mass-production to nuclear weapons manufacture, to build the nation’s tactical and strategic bombs. 


September 24, 1949 Los Angeles Times “Truman Says RUSS Have A-Bomb  (coming 5 years earlier than anyone had predicted)  The first Soviet atomic bomb was set off on 29 August 1949. [considering what we were doing, can you blame them?]


“Operation Ranger”


January 1951, Nevada Test Site, 5 new nuclear weapons air-dropped at this new test site.


          “Ranger-Able”                                                       1 kiloton

          27 January 1951, 5:45am,

          air-dropped, first detonation in U.S. since Trinity.


          “Shot-Easy”                                                          47 kilotons

          20 April 1951,

          structural test survivability




“Item” test                                                            45 kilotons

          first use of tritium “boosting”, kicking yield up from 20-kt,     doubling it to 45-kt


The Hydrogen Bombs


          “George Event”                                                     large 225 kiloton

weapon used to burn a deuterium capsule, first of our thermo-nuclear experiments.


January 21, 1950, The Times, “Truman Deciders To OK H-Bomb”


          “Mike Shot”                                                 Eniwetok atoll

          wet bomb” using liquid hydrogen isotopes, physical weight

          62 tons.


          “Ivy Mike”                                                   10 Megatons

          first fullscale H-bomb



The Big One


          “Castle Bravo                                              15 Megatons

          28 February 1951, largest U.S. thermo-nuclear device

          Fallout scares take place, Bravo crater 1.2 miles diameter


“Upshot Knothole”


Spring 1953, 11 Nuclear Weapons Tests in Nevada test site, code named “Upshot Knothole”


          “Encore”                                                      27 kilotons


          “Grabble”                                                    27 kilotons


          Nuclear canon used,                                   15 kiloton

          25 May 1958, atomic canon


1955, Russian explodes their first H-bomb. (LA Times)

[source material: “TRINITY & BYOND: THE ATOMIC BOMB MOVIE”  ]


What The World Might Have Been


In 1948, after a final failed attempt to run for President, Henry Wallace retired from politics, and went to quietly live on his farm in upstate New York where he died in 1965.  Oliver Stone in his fine series “The Untold History Of The United States” said, “In an irony that only in American capitalism could embrace, the hybrid corn company which Wallace founded in 1926 was sold in the late 1990s to Dupont Corporation for more than 9 billion dollars, a bittersweet reminder to those who repeatedly denigrated “Mr. Smith Goes To Washington” as naïve and Communist.  He remains one of the unsung heroes of the Second World War, showing the world a kinder vision of America…What might have this country become had Wallace succeeded Roosevelt in April of ’45 instead of Truman?  Would no atomic bombs have been used in World War II?  Could we have avoided the nuclear arms race and the Cold War [including both the Korean and Vietnam Wars]?  Would Civil Rights and Women’s Rights have triumphed in the immediate post-war years?  Might colonialism have ended decades earlier, and the fruits of science and industry been spread more equitably around the globe?  We’ll never know.  “Some have spoken of the American Century, I say that the century on which we are entering, the century which will come out of this war, can be and must be the Century of the Common Man.  If we really believe we are fighting for a people’s peace, all the rest becomes easy.” [direct quote from Henry A. Wallace’s “Common Man” speech as quoted by Oliver Stone]  Far from being a Communist as his detractors, Truman and his cabal of thugs liked to libel him, Henry A. Wallace was a capitalist, of the gentlest and most loving kind, the kind that looks after the poor and needy.  Very interestingly, Jesus Christ at his 2nd coming will usher in Henry Wallace’s vision, but it will become the Millennium of the Common Man.  But, very sadly, before that event can occur mankind has to face and go through the Armageddon Harry S. Truman has aimed us toward.  To read several Biblical articles about those two events, see:


          To read a prophetic article about one of our enemy-turned-allies,



          To read about the coming Millennium of the Common Man, see,




President Dwight David Eisenhower


In September 1957 the Soviets launched their huge 6-ton Sputnik-2.  I remember, I was 11-years old.  It carried that dog Liaka into orbit around the world.  But, unknown to most at the time Nikita Khrushchev reached out to Eisenhower, where he called for “a peaceful space competition and an end to the Cold War.”  But Ike, obviously under huge hidden political pressure from within the military-industrial complex, which was big business, Eisenhower instead spoke publicly about America’s huge military superiority.  He said, “We are well ahead of the Soviets, both in quality and quantity.”  He ought to know.  The huge military-industrial complex which, founded by Harry Truman’s efforts, virtually mushroomed under Eisenhower’s 8-years in office (1952-1960).  By 1961 the Russians had only 15 respectable ICBMs to the United States’ over 400 land-based ICBMs, included in the total number of nuclear weapons the U.S. had, which was around 22,000 by the end of Eisenhower’s watch.  This included multiple thousands of Strategic Air Command B-52 bombers, and the world’s first nuclear powered Polaris missile-firing submarine, the U.S.S. George Washington (carrying 16 Polaris nuclear-tipped missiles which could be launched while submerged).  But Eisenhower sounded a chilling warning to the American people and their next President, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, about the Military-Industrial-Complex he had helped feed and build up.  (On Ike’s watch our nuclear arsenal had gone from just over 1,000 to over 22,000 nuclear weapons!)  He said this on a national television broadcast just before leaving office, “We have been compelled to create a permanent armaments industry of vast proportions.  Three and a half million men and women are directly engaged in the defense establishment.  The influence, economic, political, even spiritual, is felt in every city, every State House, every office of the Federal government.  In the councils of government we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military-industrial complex.  We must never let the weight of this combination endanger our liberties or democratic processes.”  All of Eisenhower’s successors in the White House, just as Truman before him, who set the leading example by threatening America’s enemies, real and imagined, threatened the Soviet Union with nuclear destruction if they don’t bow to our demands.  This list of Presidents includes Kennedy (to some degree, although he totally reversed himself in that regards), Johnson, Nixon, Ford, Carter, Reagan, Bush I, Clinton, Bush II, no one’s left off the list of shame since, and including Truman the Big Daddy of them all.  One very scary thing Eisenhower did, is that he delegated to theater commanders and to lower level commanders the authority to launch a nuclear strike if they believed circumstances mandated it and they were out of direct contact with the White House.  The movie “Dr. Strangelove” highlighted this idiotic and frightening delegation of authority over nuclear launch authority, and its potential ramifications.  The following lines taken from the movie Dr. Strangelove demonstrate this pretty clearly, which the whole movie does, “General Turgidson, I find this very difficult to understand.  I was under the impression that I was the only one in authority to order the use of nuclear weapons.”  [spoken by the President---General Turgidson answers next]  “Ah, that’s right, Sir, you are the only one authorized to do so, and although I hate to judge before all the facts are in it’s beginning to look like General Ripper exceeded his authority.”  [President speaks] “It certainly does, far beyond the point I would have imagined possible.”  [General Turgidson speaks again] “Well perhaps you’re forgetting the provisions of ‘Plan-R’ Sir.”  [President speaks again] “Plan-R?” [General Turgidson] “Plan-R is an emergency war-plan in which a lower-echelon commander may order nuclear retaliation after a sneak attack, if the normal chain-of-command has been disrupted.  You approved it Sir, you must remember.”  [Next scene, Slim Pickin’s riding “the bomb” down to the Russian target waving his cowboy hat wildly, yelling a Texas war-hoop, and then the detonation, World War III has begun.] 


At The End Of His Presidency It Was Eisenhower’s Desire, Along With Khrushchev, To End The Cold War—What Happened?


U2 Crash, 1 May 1960


“In May 1960, President Eisenhower had planned to culminate his dream of a “Crusade for Peace” with the ultimate summit conference with Nikita Khrushchev in Paris.  On May 1, 1960, a CIA spy plane, a high-flying U-2 with Capt. Francis Gary Powers at the controls, overflew the Soviet Union from Pakistan and made a crash-landing at Sverdlovsk in the heart of Russia and by so doing wrecked the hopes of the summit conference and the dreams of Eisenhower and Khrushchev, two old warriors who understood each other.

          As a footnote to that important event, it was Allen Dulles himself, giving testimony before a closed-door session of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, who said positively that, despite Soviet claims, the Powers U-2 had not been shot down but had descended because of engine trouble.  This important statement by Dulles has been little noted by the press, and little thought has been given to exactly why that aircraft had “trouble” at such a critical time.  Later, Eisenhower confirmed that the spy plane had not been shot down by the Soviets and had indeed lost engine power and crashed-landed in Russia.  Its unauthorized flight was another part of the Cold War game designed to deny President Eisenhower his Crusade for Peace.” [“JFK: The CIA, Vietnam, and the Plot to Assassinate John F. Kennedy” p.100, par. 2-3]


Capt. Francis Gary Powers, pilot of the U-2, landed alive and well and in possession of a number of most remarkable identification items, survival kit materials, and other things spies are never allowed to carry.  Did he know he had them in his parachute pack, or did someone who knew the U-2 had been prepared to fail put them there to create his “CIA spy” identity?”…The CIA’s U-2 spy plane [flown by Francis Gary Powers]… suffered engine failure that may have been induced by a pre-planned shortage of auxiliary hydrogen fuel.” [ibid. text next to photos of Francis Gary Powers and his U-2 spy plane opposite page 60.]  “Eisenhower had had high hopes for his Crusade for Peace, based upon a successful summit conference in Paris during May 1960, and a postsummit invitation to Moscow for a grand visit with Khrushchev.  The visit to the Soviet Union was to cap his many triumphant tours to other countries, where the ever-popular Ike had drawn crowds of more than one million.

          In preparation for the summit and its theme of worldwide peace and harmony, the White House had directed all aerial surveillance activity (“overflights”) of Communist territory to cease until further notice and had ordered that no U.S. military personnel were to become involved in any combat activities, covert or otherwise, during that period.”  [ibid. p. 124, par. 4-5, sel. parts]


In spite of this huge nuclear armed military war machine that had been built up during the Truman and then Eisenhower Presidencies, Ike had finally heeded Nikita Khrushchev’s call for world peace.  Both Ike and Nikita Khrushchev wanted to back down militarily and foster world peace.  The CIA and those in control of it behind the scenes didn’t want that to occur, they had other plans they had been working on, in Southeast Asia since the end of 1945.  The apparently planned flameout of Gary Power’s U-2 spy plane derailed Ike’s and Nikita’s plans to end the Cold War, and put the CIA’s plans for a major war in Southeast Asia right back on track, or so it would appear. 



Nuclear Tests Since 1952

Under President Dwight Eisenhower


“Operation Wigwam”


500 miles off the coast of San Diego, California Operation Wigwam, a 30 kiloton device was suspended 2,000 feet underwater on a cable from a barge (first real nuclear depth-charge, for all you subsailors). 


7 months prior to Redwing the Soviet Union demonstrated their ability to deliver thermonuclear weapons by strategic bombers [Tu-95 Bear bombers] tipping the balance of power in their favour.  [Really?  That’s what the U.S. military and government wanted us to believe.  We in S.A.C. had way more B-52s than the Soviets had of Tu-95 Bears, multiple thousands more.]



“Operation Redwing”


Operation Redwing Pacific Proving Grounds, 17 nuclear tests to test high-yield thermonuclear devices (H-Bombs). 


          “Cherokee Event”                                                 3.8 Megatons

          very first H-bomb dropped by U.S. aircraft (B-36), 21 May 1956 


          “Tewa Event”                                                        5 Megatons

          20 July 1956


“Operation Plumbob”


1957, 24 Nuclear Tests in the Nevada Test Site (desert)


          “Hood Event”                                                        74 kilotons

          device suspended 1,500 feet above desert floor [totally nuts, testing

          with U.S. soldiers near it.]


          “Rainier Event”                                                     3 kilotons

          first fully underground weapons test by U.S. 790 feet below Mount

          Rainier, Nevada Test Site.


“Operation Hardtack”


1958: Pacific Proving Ground, 35 nuclear tests (as many as had been fired in all previous Pacific tests)—(if that didn’t make the Soviet nervous, nothing would).  By now, nuclear weapons tests were perceived as Saber Rattling [which it had been since Truman set off the first two nuclear weapons over Japan, btw], increasing the international tensions that could lead to all-out nuclear war.  [Nikita S. Khrushchev was Premier over the Soviet Union at this point in time, struggling to get Soviet food production and consumer goods going domestically, and struggling to get a degree of democratic reforms into Russia, unseen since during the Stalin years, having just de-Stalinized the Soviet Union, freeing 13 million innocent Russians from the Gulags and shutting them down, and desiring peaceful co-existence between the Communist system in the Soviet Union and American democratic capitalism.]  Against mounting pressure the U.S still believed that these weapons were vital, and were the only counter-weight to offset superior Soviet manpower [the massive Red Army].  The Soviets having just completed an elaborate series of atmospheric tests, were now likely to make a move to renounce testing, knowing full-well that the U.S. was involved in a massive operation, Operation Hardtack.


          “Cactus Event”                                                      18 kilotons

          first two missile-borne high altitude detonations


          “Teak”                                                                   3.8 Megatons



          using von Braun’s Redstone rocket


“Argus experiment”, three 1 kiloton tests in the South Atlantic, detonating them 300 miles above the earth.


Nikita S. Khrushchev comes to full political power four days later [1958], and the Soviet Union announces it is suspending further nuclear tests.  The U.S. branded it a propaganda move, but in reality, studying Soviet history of the 1950s, it was a sincere move on Khrushchev’s part.  Eisenhower agrees to put a hold on testing on the part of the U.S. of atomic and hydrogen weapons for 1-year.  A two-year moratorium on weapons testing existed.



Under President John Fitzgerald Kennedy


Then, in 1961 secretly, the Soviets began designing weapons of mass destruction, with the 57 megaton bomb, aircraft deliverable (via Tu-95 Bear bombers).  [They were probably aware of the fact that the U.S. was mass-producing nuclear bombs and warheads at Sandia Corporation in Albuquerque, New Mexico.] On 30 October 1961, the Soviet Union, on Novaya Zymlya tested a monster hydrogen bomb, at 57 Megatons. 


“Operation Dominic”


Pacific Ocean, 360 nuclear tests, testing our Fleet Ballistic Missile submarine launch systems and submarines, with the new Polaris submerged launched missiles carrying nuclear payloads.


Subroc and ASROC submerged launched nuclear-tipped cruise missile/torpedoes, as well as the development of the Mk 45 nuclear torpedo of 11 kiloton yield. 


Christmas Island B-52 dropped tests


Johnston Island tests using Thor missiles testing high altitude detonations again.


          “Tightrope  was the last atmospheric test conducted by the U.S..  Between 1945 and 1962 the U.S. conducted 331 atmospheric nuclear tests.



“…Cuba and the missile gap when Kennedy was elected, he was told that there was no missile gap [i.e. that there was parity with the number of our ICBM’s and the U.S.S.R.’s ICBM’s].” (Dino Briggioni, former C.I.A. photographic interpreter)  “Well there was a radical change in our information on Soviet strategic forces right in that period, 1961, ’62” as a result of our using earth satellites for intelligence collection.  Through the satellite system we could precisely count the number of Soviet Intercontinental Missile systems and at that particular time there was 15.  The United States had over 400 ICBM’s.  The missile gap was rapidly becoming a missile gap in our favor.”  (Raymond Gartthoff, Brookings Institute)  Next a telling quote from Sergei Khrushchev, Nikita Khrushchev’s son, now a history professor living in Rhode Island, teaching I believe at Browne University.  “And because it was fear, my father’s fear that if America will know how weak we are, it can provoke them to start the War.” (Sergei Khrushchev)  [Probably referring to why his father, Nikita Khrushchev, set off that 57-megaton H-bomb.]



President John Fitzgerald Kennedy signs the historic Atomic Test Ban Treaty with Nikita S. Khrushchev (at the time of the Moscow-Peking split due to his de-Stalinization of the Soviet Union) [one year after the Cuban Missile Crisis]  Source material: “TRINITY & BYOND: THE ATOMIC BOMB MOVIE”


Eisenhower was not allowed to take advantage of the Olive Branch Premier Nikita Khrushchev was holding out to him, for peace and cooperation in space exploration, and for an end to the Cold War.  The Eisenhower years would be remembered by most at that time as peaceful and prosperous.  It was the age of Rock’n Roll.  But I also remember it was also the age of “the Bomb”, and I remember trying to dig bomb shelters in the ground with a neighbor kid.  Khrushchev would yet again hold this Olive Branch out to the next President.  Let’s see what happens next.


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