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Genesis 1:1-31, Earth & Universe

Created In Six Days?


“There are many fine men of God who teach that the earth is young, having only been created less than ten thousand years ago.  I respect these men and appreciate all they have done to combat the godless evolutionary theories that dominate our world today.  One of their strong arguments in favor of a young earth comes from Exodus 20:11, which says: “For in six days the LORD made the heavens and the earth, the sea, and all that is in them.”  While I see how this verse can be used in arguing for a young earth, I do not necessarily agree with their position of a young earth, nor do I believe that the Scripture necessarily supports a young earth. 

I do believe that there is much credence to what is known as “the gap theory,” which is the suggestion that between verses 1 and 2 in the first chapter of Genesis, there is a gap of time that could extend even to several billion [3.5 billion, anyone?] years.  In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth, but the earth became wasted and desolate [Hebrew Tohu and Bohu].  Darkness was upon the face of the deep. So sometime between Genesis 1:1, when God created the heaven and the earth, and Genesis 1:2, when the earth was [became] wasted and desolate, or without form and void, perhaps there was some cataclysmic happening in the universe that brought the earth into a chaotic state; an ice age, perhaps.  And I think that this could extend over millions of years, even into billions.

Those who contend for a young earth would cite verse 11 [of Exodus 20] and say,
“It says it was made in six days.”  They say the whole universe was made in six days; the heavens and the earth, everything in six days.  It is a strong argument, but I think it has a fatal flaw.  In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth.  The word “created” there is
bara, which means “to create out of nothing.”  In the beginning God bara, created out of nothing, the heavens and the earth [which, by the way fits Einstein’s and Hawking’s Big Bang Theory].  Now, as we go into the creation days of Genesis [verses 3-31], a different Hebrew word is employed.  God “made” the dry land appear. That’s the Hebrew word asa, which is “to assemble from existing materials.”  Now, this particular word here, “for in seven days God made the heavens and the earth,” is again the word asa, that is, God assembled from the existing materials the heaven and the earth, in its present order, as recorded in the remainder of chapter 1 of Genesis. 

So I do not believe that from the Scriptures, you have to argue for a young earth of, say, ten thousand years or less, though there may be some scientific evidence for that, and you really can’t prove it either way.  But I don’t think a young earth is necessarily a Scriptural position.  Also, the young earth position does not explain when the angels were created or when Satan fell from heaven, which had to be before the Genesis creation account.”  [That quote was taken directedly from the late Pastor Chuck Smith, former senior Pastor of Calvary Chapel, Costa Mesa, California, in a comment section of The Word For Today Bible, New King James Version, page 107.  Pastor Chuck Smith was used by God to start the JESUS movement, within his tiny 25 member Calvary Chapel in the late 1960s (see The JESUS Revolution: )].  So I would say it’s a good guess that many of the Calvary Chapel congregations, which tend to be semi-autonomous, agree with their former senior Pastor, Chuck Smith on this Biblical interpretation of Genesis 1:1-31, which follows, some don’t, and that’s ok.  Following that explanation below, is the Theistic interpretation for Genesis chapter 1, which I feel also needs looking at.  Genesis 1 is not and can never be used as a proof for God’s existence or the veracity of the Bible, only fulfilled prophecy can do that.  Genesis 1 is merely God’s statement that “I did it, I created it all,” and it doesn’t even get into the science of how God did it.  Let’s make that clear. 

The Genesis 1:1-31 Six Literal Day Template From The Gap Theory Interpretation


How do we reconcile the Periods of Time (POTs), Epochs, previously explained in The Genesis Code section, with the apparent literal creation of all the animal and plant life, and ocean life that we see on earth today, the life that is relevant to man, what mankind has been familiar with for the past 6,000 years of his written history?  First, we must come to see that Genesis 1:1-31 is a “Template” which can be used for the larger explanation given to us in The Genesis Code, involving epoch-length periods of time, taking into account Einstein’s Relativity-based time dilation laws, and also this template can be used for a literal six-day creation.  If one assumes that all life died during these E.L.E.s, then one would have to assume that specific creations took place throughout all the larger epochs, usually after an E.L.E., extinction level event had occurred.  After the massive and all-encompassing KT extinction level event, God certainly could have started another creation of his, which specifically fit the six literal day “Genesis 1:1-31 Template” (assuming all life did die off during the KT-barrier extinction level event).  This is what has been termed “the Gap Theory,” which is a fairly recent (100 years or more) explanatory theory to take into account the geologic record that the earth and heavens are much, much older than 6,000 years.  This Gap Theory allows for the literal six-day creation of all the plant and animal life man is now familiar with, this “template” fitting neatly inside the larger template, the epoch-sized one, including the POTs taking us through the entire 15.75 billion years of the universe’s existence.  One fits right within the other like those Russian dolls go inside one another.  I will now proceed to show you how Gap theorists believe this is possible.  What follows is the Gap Theory explanation for Genesis 1:1-31. 


What Do The E.L.E’s Show Us, According To Those Who Promote ‘the Gap Theory’?


“But first we must establish something.  What do these E.L.E.’s, “extinction level events,” show us?  They throw a huge monkey-wrench into the theory of evolution, and the KT-barrier E.L.E. conclusively does this.  For all life to have been wiped out, right down to the plankton and single-celled life-forms on land and sea, and then for the sudden appearance of different life-forms within a period of time viewed as insufficient for the evolutionary process spells the deathblow for evolutionary theory.  Does the geologic record back up what I have just said?  I will give just two quotes, in the interest of brevity, which the Gap Theory proponents like to use  “The history of most fossil species includes two features particularly inconsistent with gradualism [gradual evolution from one species to another]:  [1] Stasis.  Most species exhibit no directional [evolutionary] change during their tenure on earth.  They appear in the fossil record looking pretty much the same as when they disappear; morphological [anatomical or structural] change is usually limited and directionless.  [2] Sudden appearance.  In any local area, a species does not arise gradually by the steady transformation of its ancestors: it appears all at once and ‘fully formed.’” (“Evolution’s Erratic Pace,” Natural History, May 1977, pp. 13-14, emphasis added).  Francis Hitching, a member of the Prehistoric Society and the Society for Physical Research has this to say, “There are about 250,000 different species of fossil plants and animals in the world’s museums,”  “This compares with about 1.5 million species known to be alive on Earth today.  Given the known rates of evolutionary turnover, it has been estimated that at least 100 times more fossil species have lived than have been discovered…But the curious thing is that there is a consistency about the fossil gaps: the fossils go missing in all the important places.  When you look for links between major groups of animals, they simply aren’t there; at least, not in enough numbers to put their status beyond doubt.  Either they don’t exist at all, or they are so rare that endless argument goes on about whether a particular fossil is, or isn’t, or might be transitional between this group and that…There ought to be cabinets full of intermediates---indeed, one would expect the fossils to blend so gently into one another that it would be difficult to tell where the invertebrates ended and the vertebrates began.  But this isn’t the case.  Instead, groups of well-defined, easily classifiable fish jump into the fossil record seemingly from nowhere:  mysteriously, suddenly, full-formed, and in a most unDarwinian way.  And before them are maddening, illogical gaps where their ancestors should be.” (The Neck of the Giraffe: Darwin Evolution and the New Biology, 1982, pp. 9-10, emphasis added.) [This is where evolutionary scientists stood in the 1980s, scratching their heads.  The evidence in the fossil record is now far more complete now in 2020, pointing powerfully to a theistic “evolutionary” creation, which is not blind evolution by any stretch of the imagination.  More on that later.]

The KT-Barrier Extinction-Level Event


Now getting back to where we were in Genesis 1:1, the record of the rocks shows that after these two global-killer asteroids hit (65-66 million years ago), huge clouds of dust, volcanic smoke, ash and debris filled the skies, blocking out all light.  The geologic record shows 500,000 years of serious volcanic activity on the Indian sub-continent right after the KT-barrier E.L.E.  Anything that survived those two huge blasts and resultant shock waves of searing steam and heat, and oncoming tidal waves flying out from the blast sites for hundreds, even thousands of miles, and then buckling the Earth’s crust creating volcanic eruptions and fissures around the world---the life that was left alive---plant life from giant Cycads down to the tiny diatoms, plankton and single-celled life stopped photosynthesizing and soon died.  Any dinosaurs that had survived died of starvation within weeks, on a darkened planet.  The huge chalk cliffs, the White Cliffs of Dover being just one example, are dead diatoms, nannoplankton, piled high, from the K/T Barrier E.L.E. dated 65 to 66 million years ago.  For a complete description of this event, including geologic proofs, see,


Six Literal Day “Template” For Genesis 1:1-31


So, fitting the Genesis 1:1-31 “template” into the timeframe of the KT-barrier E.L.E. to present, and seeing clearly in the geologic record that specific “creations” of animal, dinosaur and what not, and plant life have come and gone (via the E.L.E’s), with no sign of evolutionary processes involved, let’s now look at Genesis 1:1-31 starting from that frame of reference. “In the beginning God created [Hebrew: bara, to create from nothing] the heaven and the earth.” (Genesis 1:1)  God created the heavens and the earth, and we saw how this was done in the Genesis Code article in the Does God Exist section of this website,  via the Big Bang 15.75 billion years ago.  But then, using this as a template for the time from the KT-barrier E.L.E. to now, Genesis 1 now shows us “And the earth was [can also be translated became] without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep.  And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.” (Genesis 1:2)  This would show us that huge KT-barrier E.L.E. had taken place.  Nothing lived, the geologic record shows us that [according to those who believe this Gap Theory interpretation].  Now lets see what God did.  So in Genesis 1:2a+b we see “Now the earth became formless [Hebrew Tohu] and empty [Bohu], and darkness was upon the face of the deep.” So the earth is in darkness, and as we’ve seen, this darkness could have lasted for millions of years after those asteroid impacts.  Then God steps in (as he’s obviously done after the past E.L.E.’s). “And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.” (verse 2b)  So the earth is in darkness under this thick cloud of debris and volcanic ash, and the Spirit of God, it says, is hovering over the waters.  God is ready at this point in time to start re-creating new life-forms.  Let’s continue reading and see what happens.  Remember the paleontologists quoted in the article “The Day the Dinosaurs Died” said, “It was as if a huge curtain was wrung down on the Dinosaurs, and when it lifted the whole stage had changed.  Nothing of the Dinosaur age was to be seen.  Now everything that had to do with man and man himself was on the stage, and reptiles were mere supernumeraries [bit part actors].”   


Day One 


“And God said, Let there be light:  and there was light.  And God saw the light, that it was good:  and God divided the light from the darkness.  And God  called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night.  And the evening and the morning were the first day.” (Genesis 1:3-5)  And don’t forget, if God could create the whole universe, and create species suddenly, as the geologic record shows, this could have been done in six days, whether they were time-dilated days from the KT-barrier event to now or not.  On the first “day” of reforming earth’s surface God introduces periods of night and day by clearing away much of the smoke, ash and atmospheric debris that was blocking all light from the planet, enough so night and day were now discernable from each other.  Thus a little light came through to earth for the first time since the KT-barrier E.L.E.  Before this partial clearing of this huge cloud barrier no light, neither sunlight, moon light nor starlight had come through. 


Day Two 


“And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.  And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament:  and it was so.  And God called the firmament Heaven.  And the evening and the morning were the second day.” (Genesis 1:6-8)  On this second day God had to clean up the atmosphere, which remember, was filled with all kinds of deadly volcanic gases and ash.  He may have even recreated the atmosphere as it is now, 78 percent nitrogen, oxygen 21 percent, CO-2 at a safe level of 0.4 percent, a healthy combination of gases suitable to man.  I think before the KT-extinction oxygen levels may have been a bit higher, and maybe C0-2 levels as well.  The atmosphere had to be suitable for the new re-creation of life on this planet, life as we know it now. 

Day Three 


“And God said, Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear:  and it was so.  And God called the dry land Earth; and the gathering of the waters called he Seas:  and God saw that it was good.  And God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon the earth:  and it was so.  And the earth brought forth grass, and herb yielding seed after his kind, and the tree yielding fruit, whose seed was in itself, after his kind:  and God saw that it was good.  And the evening and the morning were the third day.” (Genesis 1:9-13)  Remolding of the earth’s crust would have taken place here, separating the seas from dry land, probably continent reformation.  We know continents existed 65 million years ago, even parts of the North American continent, but even large parts of that continent were underwater.  So the continents probably as we know them now were formed.  Then God, as we’ve seen in the geologic record, suddenly created all the interrelated plant species, vegetation---trees, bushes, flowers, grass, grains of all types---everything that could grow out of the ground.  But these plants were now suitable to the animals God would create, and man himself, and not the dinosaur species that had gone before [according to those that hold to the Gap Theory].   


Day Four  


“And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years:  and let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth:  and it was so.  And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night; he made the stars also.  And God set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth, and to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness:  and God saw that it was good.  And the evening and the morning were the fourth day.” (Genesis 1:14-19)  On this fourth day God cleared away the last remaining dust from the sky, thus letting the sun, moon and stars become visible for the first time in millions of years.   


Day Five  


“And God said, Let the waters bring forth abundantly the moving creature that hath life, and fowl that may fly above the earth in the open firmament of heaven.  And God created great whales, and every living creature that moveth, which the waters brought forth abundantly, after their kind, and every winged fowl after his kind:  and God saw that it was good.  And God blessed them, saying, Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let the fowl multiply in the earth.  And the evening and the morning were the fifth day.” (Genesis 1:20-23)  On this 5th day God created all the species of fish we see in today’s oceans, rivers and lakes, both freshwater and saltwater varieties.  He also created all aquatic mammals.  God also created on this day all the various bird species.  In time the seas and skies were swarming with living creatures, all adapted for the age of man, and not the dinosaur age.  The progression described in Genesis 1 fits what all these species would need.  First, the atmosphere cleared up and made suitable for life (day one and two).  The second essential thing, making continents, dry land and creating all the vegetation on them, and areas for the seas to be contained in, for the sea creatures to live in, right down to essential atmosphere-C0-2 scrubbing diatoms and plankton, to the largest of whales, and continents for all the plant life to start growing on (day three).  Then a final clearing away of the atmosphere, to allow full photosynthesis to take place for healthy living of all the plant species just created.  This would have made the sun, moon and stars visible (day four).  And as we have just seen, on day five, all the life in the world’s oceans, rivers and lakes was created.  You can see, each phase follows the necessary pattern that would support life, as designed by a master bio-engineer, God.  Now we’re ready for day six [in this Gap Theory explanation]. 


Day Six  


“And God said, Let the earth bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after his kind:  and it was so.  And God made the beast of the earth after his kind, and cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind:  and God saw that it was good.  And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness:  and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.  So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them.  And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it:  and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth.  And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat.  And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for meat:  and it was so.  And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very good.  And the evening and the morning were the sixth day.” (Genesis 1:24-31)  As seen by the text, God created all the interrelated animal species, and insect species necessary for healthy plant life in today’s ecosystem.  Everything mankind would need to sustain him on the planet was now in existence.   So, finally, at the end of this day, God creates mankind through Adam and Eve.  It’s interesting, through the Human Genome Project, where the entire DNA and gene sequences for mankind have been mapped out (and the guy who did it became a Christian believer from an atheist), all of mankind has been traced to a single small lineage, which of course points to Adam.  The man who headed this project was Francis Collins, former atheist and currently the director of the National Human Genome Research Institute.  


The Theistic Evolution of Life, Coupled to “the Genesis Code--Time Dilation Formula” For the Six Days Of Genesis


Scientists, paleontologists and geologists, have seen clear and newly discovered fossil evidence that not all life died off during the extensive KT-barrier extinction level event, and that many transition fossils have been discovered recently from that period to our present age.  If you are a believer, as I am, this points toward Theistic Evolution of the Species.  Why “Theistic” and not blind evolution? Because the cellular level of life is so very complex, the start-up of life on earth points to a Creator carrying out the specific creation of cellular life in the early seas, somewhere over 3 billion years ago.  Dr. Michael Behe, a PhD level micro-micro bio-chemist whose research has taken him down to the atomic structure of cellular life, wrote the masterful work Darwin’s Black Box.  His book clearly shows that blind evolution of the first life at the cellular level is totally impossible.  But at the same time, the record of the rocks shows an evolutionary process has occurred from the period of the Pre-Cambrian Seas over 3 billion years ago, to the present.  One, the creation of the first cells points to specific creation at the cellular level (primitive cellular life lacking a nucleus, but still having complex  genes and DNA), the other, the record of the rocks points to evolution of the Species.  So, what does this evidence show, both from the first creation of extremely complex cellular life, and second,  the evidence of the record of the rocks, which paleontologists are continually uncovering?  For one, the super-complexity of cellular structure goes solidly against any blind evolution at the cellular level.  It points directly to a specific creation of life at the cellular level which occurred all at once over 3 billion years ago.  Combining this first initial creation of cellular life with the fossil record of the rocks which started up in the Pre-Cambrian Seas well over 3 billion years ago, and let’s see what we get.  If blind evolution of the first living cells is just not possible, taking in the study of the law of averages, and the complexity of life at the cellular level, what’s left for an explanation?  What the fossil evidence is beginning to reveal, that from this initial “start-up of life” in the early seas (composed of complex cellular life), the higher life-forms “evolved” by intelligent flipping of “gene-switches,” bringing about an “evolutionary” change within the species extant, from then to now.  You’ll see the term “Adaptive radiation” mentioned in this study, and it is a term evolutionists like to use to explain the creative bio-engineering of a primitive species as it branches out into many other species.  The fossil record of the rocks records these events, but cannot show how this bio-engineering took place at the gene-DNA level.  But it had to occur at the gene-DNA level, pointing to “a Master Geneticist” at work here, as opposed to blind evolution, which to me is still the most logical explanation, due to the complexity of bio-engineering.  So the evidence points to God as a Master geneticist, who “wove” and created all the species we find in the record of the rocks, and he did this using DNA as his “thread,” through the flipping of genetic gene “switches,” into all the plant and animal life found in the record of the rocks, first in the oceans, and then on dry land and in the air.  The movie The Genesis Code follows this reasoning, viewing the six days of Creation given in Genesis 1 from God’s perspective, outside of Space-Time (15.75 billion years anyone?).  So, from what I see in Michael Behe’s book is that creation of cells, due to their extreme internal complexity, point to a very specific initial creation of life in the Pre-Cambrian Seas, over 3 billion years ago.  But from there, cells became the “Legos” of creation, with DNA being the “thread,” God working with them, modifying them genetically, to create and recreate all living species to suit whatever epoch they were living in, modifying these “Legos” themselves, and thus the animal and plant species that contained them.  The sophistication of these species, to say nothing of the sophistication and complexity of DNA and cellular structure, cannot have been brought about by what evolutionists call “blind evolution.”  It had to have been brought about through Divine evolution, planned out, engineered in advance, by what many are now calling ID, Intelligent Design, but evolution nonetheless.  Darwin saw it, but lacked the proper fossil evidence to clearly prove it.  Now we are becoming witness to a myriad of new connective fossil discoveries, what evolutionists in my old biology textbooks called “the Missing Links.”  To me, the idea of Theistic Evolution presented here involves a far more complex operation of creation than a whole bunch of “specific creations” purported by the Gap Theory proponents.  Theistic evolution also demonstrates God’s continuing creative hand in the process of life, from the very beginning (billions of years ago) to the end, right up to the creation of mankind and all the related flora and fauna we’re familiar with.  Ask a geneticist, if you know any, ‘What kind of complexities would be involved in such an operation?’  When you really think about it, theistic evolution really seems to fit the Genesis Code scenario far better than trying to get the Gap Theory to fit into it.  But truth, real truth, in any subject, Biblical, scientific, both combined, must be based on solid empirical evidence.  The record of the rocks was not created by God as some divine falsehood.  The Word of God and scientific evidence must agree with each other.  And when they don’t appear to, it is simply because we have not yet discovered enough evidence, just as Relativity and the Genesis Code has clearly shown us--that mankind did not have the proper scientific evidence or understanding until just recently to understand “the six days” of creation.  I can’t wait to see the next batch of evidence to surface.  First, let us look at what I call The Genesis Code, which explains how the six days of Genesis 1 can be reconciled with the 15.75 billion year age of the Universe, from the Big Bang to now, as calculated from Edwin Hubble’s discovered expansion of the universe backward to its beginning.  On the subject of “genetic gene switches,” I consider this quote.  Riley Black, in her incredible book “The Last Days of the Dinosaurs” made this statement, which proves my thesis that there are genetic “gene switches” which can be turned on and off.  She believes these “gene switches” have only been turned on or off by mutations, but my premise is that from the first creation of the proto-cellular life by an all-wise God, bio-engineering by the turning on and off of genetic “gene switches” has been creating via “theistic evolution” the various biota of life down through the geologic ages.  Although Riley Black believes in blind evolution, I find that hard to believe in, given the complexity of life throughout the geologic record and all these balanced biota throughout the ages, to say nothing of the complexity of the DNA code of life, which to me points to intelligent design of a Master geneticist.  She made a statement which points to the flipping of genetic “gene switches” which in my estimation points to a Master geneticist bringing about the “theistic evolution” of all life on the planet, past and present.  She stated “Nor can birds evolve to have teeth or claws.  The genes for these weapons and tools are still in their bodies, but they have been shut off by mutations [she says mutations, I say by the Master geneticist, God Almighty] and slowly degraded over time.  There is no evolutionary switch that can just turn them back on.”  That last sentence is no longer true for GMO geneticists in the lab, they can turn those ancient gene switches back on, they just haven’t chosen to do so at present.  If a PhD level geneticist can do that, God as a Master geneticist can certainly control the theistic evolution of the species down through the ages, creating whatever balanced biota he wishes. [quote, emphasis mine, “The Last Days of the Dinosaurs” by Riley Black, p. 183]  But first question, how do we square the six days of Creation given in Genesis 1:1-31 with the scientifically calculated 15.75 billion year age of the Universe, going back to the point of the Big Bang, which the Universe was “created,” bara out of literally nothing?  Answer:

The Genesis Code


“Everyone accepts the fact that science and the Bible are at odds with most major issues, especially when it comes to the creation of the universe.  Genesis says the earth and the universe were created in six days.  Science says it took some 15 or 16 billion years.  The Bible seems to be at complete odds with science, just a religious fable spun by the ancients to explain the unknowable.  It’s the first 31 verses that people can’t seem to get past.  Was it 6 days or 16 billion years?  You can’t have it both ways---until now.  Is the Bible right or is science right?  Both are absolutely correct---according to the laws of relativity Albert Einstein discovered.”

“In reality, Genesis 1:1-31 is written from God’s perspective outside of Space and Time or what physicists call Space-Time, or what Star Trek coined as the Space-Time Continuum.  We’re reading time as humans from our own particular frame and point of reference inside of Space-Time.  God inspired Moses to write Genesis 1:1-31 from his own frame of reference “outside of Space-Time,” as someone sitting next to God would have witnessed the events of creation unfolding. 


  Some Basic Physics In Layman’s Terms 


Time itself, as Einstein discovered, is actually different for observers in different frames of reference, when one frame is in motion relative to another.  In normal lower speeds we humans are accustomed to, the difference is imperceptible.  But as the speed approaches the speed of light the impact, the differences are overwhelming.  The greater the speed in one frame of reference to another, the slower time passes in the accelerating frame of reference.  And, also, gravity has the same effect on time as does speed.  So time also passes slower in a frame of reference where the force of gravity is greater than to another frame of reference with weaker gravity.  


Let’s Look At The Universe


Scientists used to believe the universe was in steady-state.  Go outside and look up at the stars.  There they are, right where they were the night before, and the night before that.  [Pleiades, a beautiful constellation is mentioned in the Book of Job, which is reputed to be the oldest book in the Bible.]  Steady-state, says the universe always was and always would be, forever.  And time, we always knew what time was, the ticking of the clock, always the same, one day to the next, the same, here, on the moon, across the universe, a thousand years ago.  Time moved forward, yesterday, today and tomorrow, always at the same speed, tick, tock.  And then along came Albert Einstein and everything changed (our perceptions of Time & Space changed, that is). 


The Big Bang And Relativity  


In the beginning (talking Relativity now, and astrophysics, not Bible, or Steady-State time) there was nothing, the universe did not exist, no planets or stars, not even empty space, nothing, not even time.  And out of this complete nothing there was a flash! and a speck was formed, no bigger than a mustard seed.  And in that tiny speck was all that everything would be.  And that speck expanded at 100’s of millions of miles per hour.  It was a ball of pure energy, dense, massive, beyond imagination, and the temperature was in the trillions of degrees, a mass of pure plasma expanding at the speed of light.  Everything that ever would be, the material of everything that exists today, the planets and the stars, all living things, Time & Space itself was at that moment in this ball of pure plasma energy.  This was good news, Einstein’s revelations, for Bible thumpers, it says there was a beginning, just like it says in the Bible.  Of course, the bad news was, the Bible says it all happened in six days.  The idea of this Big Bang all came about as a result of Einstein’s theory of relativity (which has proven to be the laws of relativity), where he established in the physical sciences, that nothing was absolute, everything was relative to speed.  It’s a concept in physics we call Time-Dilation.  For someone traveling at near the speed of light, time passes more slowly than for someone waiting on earth.  Less actual time elapses for someone traveling near the speed of light than for one who is stationary on earth.  For an object at rest time passes as we are accustomed, as the object begins to accelerate and as it approaches the speed of light, the amount of time that passes decreases.  The passage of time is relative to speed, time-dilation.  The effect of increased gravity (say at the Event-Horizon of a black hole) slows the passage of time, just as traveling near the speed of light does.  For an object in a zero or low gravity environment (such as found on earth) time passes as we’re all accustomed to it.  As the force of gravity on an object increases, the passage of time narrows, time slows down.  To sum it up, time is not fixed or constant.  Time or the passage of time is effected by speed or gravity, the greater the speed or the greater the force of gravity, the slower the passage of time. 


The Stretching Of Space Also Slows Time


Science tells us at the instant of the Big Bang, everything that would be in the universe and anything in it, including Space & Time itself, was compressed to a speck the size of a mustard seed.  Now as the universe expanded, galaxies formed.  Notice as the universe expands the distance between the galaxies increases.  There is no more (quantity-wise) matter, or space or time, it’s just the distance between what there is, is increasing.  Space itself is stretching.  As space stretches, so does time.  Just as time is effected by speed and by gravity, it is also effected by the stretching of space.  But the stretching of space effects time from one moment to another, rather than just one place to another.  And this brings us back to Genesis and the quandary of six days or 16 billion years.  Now in order to understand these first six days we need to identify the frame of reference in which they unfold.  How is the story of Genesis conveyed to man?  The first five books of the Bible, including Genesis, were given directly to Moses by God (or God inspired certain others to write those books).  So the source of the story of the first six days, directly or indirectly, is God.  So Genesis 1 is told through God’s perspective, from his, scientifically speaking, frame of reference…So, just what was God’s frame of reference?  God’s frame of reference when telling the story had to be somewhere not effected by local distortions [of Space-Time], like speed or gravity [or the stretching of space itself], and that “somewhere” had to be the total universe itself, not some isolated locality within it [or outside of Space-Time itself].  So the question is, how does time unfold in this Cosmic frame of reference?  


How Does Time Unfold In This Cosmic Frame Of Reference?  What Is A Clock?  A Look At The Cosmic Clock


So the question is, how does time unfold in this Cosmic frame of reference?  How is it recorded?  To understand that we must first understand what a clock really is.  A clock is anything that repeats itself periodically where the rhythm of those cycles can be used to denote the passage of time.  That’s straight from the dictionary, tic, toc, tic, toc…A clock is not something that creates time, a clock only records the passage of time.  So the Cosmic clock that God uses to relate his time of creation to man is what?  The answer simply is light.  Light is the only constant in the universe, it provides a method of measuring the passage of time in the Cosmos.  Light can be used as a Cosmic clock to measure the passage of time by any change in the cycle or frequency of light…The distances between the crests of the light-wave.  Science has proven this by measuring the stretching of the wavelength of the light of the sun compared to the wavelength or frequency of the same light created on earth [and they’re the same].  The results confirmed the predictions made by Einstein and by time-dilation.  In order to compare time today with time at the Big Bang, and the passage of time between then and now, there has to be a source of light which exists today that also existed at the time of the Big Bang.  This light source was found in 1964, by accident, when two astronomers discovered what is called Cosmic Background Radiation, or CBR.  This is a residual radiation left over from the time of the Big Bang.  And it fills all space today as it did then.  The property of the CBR that makes it the perfect Cosmic clock is the change that has occurred in the wavelength of the decaying acts when matter was first formed following the Big Bang and now.  At the Big Bang moment the temperature in that initial plasma mass was nearly 11 trillion degrees, and the frequency of what is now the CBR corresponded.  The original frequency of the CBR was some 3 trillion cycles per second. As the universe cooled and expanded, space stretched, and with it, the wavelength of the CBR.  Today that CBR has cooled to only 2.75 degrees Kelvin, and the wavelength is some 3 cycles per second.  The ticking of this Cosmic clock has slowed from some 3 trillion cycles per second to 3 cycles per second.  The stretching of space-time, as the universe expanded, in turn stretched the distance between the wave-crests of the CBR.  The passage of time just after the Big Bang occurred at a rate one trillion times faster than it does today.  So God telling the story of the first six days to Moses, he was telling it from his frame of reference.  He told it based on the passage of time reflected by the Cosmic clock.  God related to Moses what happened on each of the six days of Genesis 1 based on the passage of time as calculated by the Cosmic clock as it recorded the passage of time as it occurred.  There is a simple formula that can be used to break the rate-of-change in the passage of Cosmic time into steps.  But in doing this, this rate-of-change, the amount of time passing will be seen from our local frame of reference, or perspective, here on earth today, in the future.  We will be looking back in time, measuring time by our clocks today.  Our clocks are running a trillion times slower than the Cosmic clock just after the Big Bang.  With every doubling in the size of the universe, from the instant of the Big Bang until the time of Adam, the stretching of the wavelength of the CBR reflects the slowing of the passage of time by one half.  Obviously each doubling in the size of the universe takes longer than the previous doubling, each doubling expansion has twice as far to go.  [Applying this formula gives us:

1st Doubling of Universe, Day 1:  ½ of 16 billion years = 8 billion years

2nd Doubling of Universe, Day 2: ½ of 8 billion years = 4 billion years

3rd Doubling of Universe, Day 3: ½ of 4 billion years = 2 billion years

4th Doubling of Universe, Day 4: ½ of 2 billion years = 1 billion years

5th Doubling of Universe, Day 5: ½ of 1 billion years = 500 million years

6th Doubling of Universe, Day 6: ½ of 500 million years = 250 million years]


Breaking These Doubling Expansions Into Six Logarithmic Steps


Now we are going to break this universe expansion up into six steps.  We’re calling these steps “P.O.T.S.” or POTS.  It’s a term we coined meaning “Passages Of Time.”  Each POT reflects the passage of time from the Big Bang to now, with each of the six doublings of the size of the universe, and a trillion times stretching in the size of the universe.  The first of these six POTS, looking back and based on our time today, would reflect the passage of 8 billion years.

Passage Of Time, POT 1:  8,000,000,000 years

During this POT the universe expands, space & time stretched a trillion times.  Looking at the increasing wavelength or distance between crests of the CBR light-wave, as you would the stretching of a “slinkey” toy, the extended distance between the coils of the “slinkey” indicating that stretch.  The events of that first POT, these events, described in their original time, from God’s frame of reference, would be one day.  But as Albert Einstein looks back, he sees those events from the perspective of today’s clock, a clock that runs a trillion times slower than the original Cosmic clock at the start of the Big Bang.  He sees the events of the unfolding of the passage of 8 billion years, which reflects the stretching of space & time.  With an adjustment of the logarithmic scale, the second of the POTs would reflect the passage of 4 billion years.  

Passage Of Time, POT 2:  4,000,000,000 years

And POT 3, 2 billion years, and POT 4, 1 billion years, and POT 5, 500 million years, and POT 6, 250 million years.  Out of the length of time reflected by these 6 POTs, as seen from our perspective, we have,  

POT 1 = 8,000,000,000 years [16by divided by 2 = 8by]

POT 2 = 4,000,000,000 years [8by divided by 2 = 4by]

POT 3 = 2,000,000,000 years [4by divided by 2 = 2by]

POT 4 = 1,000,000,000 years [2by divided by 2 = 1by]

POT 5 =    500,000,000 years [1by divided by 2 = 500my]

POT 6 =    250,000,000 years  [500my divided by 2 = 250my]

Total    15,750,000,000 years  [or 15.75 billion years]

And you have 15.75 billion years as the age of our universe---or six days, as measured by the Cosmic clock.  And this is a scientific observation, based on proven science reflecting the same period of time as it occurred in the two different frames of reference, the time as it unfolded on the Cosmic clock, and the amount of time as measured by today’s clocks, measured by today’s computation.  What God described to Moses and Moses described to the next person using the passage of time are from different frames of reference, different perspectives.  It’s sort of like taking a spaceship near the Event Horizon of a black hole to make a scientific observation.  The ship, as it records time onboard, near the Event Horizon spends an hour there.  While another spaceship, in deep space where gravity is nill, marks the passage of thousands of years, before the other ship returns.  Remember, huge gravity wells, like black holes, slow the passage of time, just like the stretching of the universe slows time.  So the first POT, from God’s frame of reference took one day, from Moses and our frame of reference it took 8 billion years.  As the universe doubled in size, the second POT as seen from God’s frame of reference took another day, and as seen from Moses perspective on earth, it took 4 billion years.


Comparing The Events In The Six Days In Genesis 1 To What Happened During Each Of The Six POTs


Lets look at what science says happened at each of these POTs and compare them to the six days of Genesis.  Summarized:

The 1st day of Genesis, verses 1-5:  “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth, and the earth was without form and void, and the darkness was over the face of the deep.  And the Spirit of God hovered over the face of the waters.  And God said Let there be light.”  Are there some points that need to be clarified?  Three, really.  You need to understand something of Hebrew to understand the Book of Genesis.  First of all, in the ancient Hebrew language there is no word for universe.  Secondly, the waters are really representing everything that was.  And darkness was a symbol for a state of chaos.  Day one would have started 15.1 billion years ago and ended 7.75 billion years ago.  [The 8 billion, 4 billion, 2 billion, 1 billion POTs are rounded off figures.]  What does science say happened on earth during this time period?  At the instant of the Big Bang, everything that would ever be, everything that would constitute quarks, protons, neutrons, electrons from which everything that now exists, as well as time & space itself were created.  The earth only existed in the form of star dust that would later congeal into the planet.  As to the first “Let there be light” you need to go back to your Big Bang video [shown in the movie] and correct something.  The name Big Bang conjures up the impression of this brilliant explosion and flash of light, like an atomic bomb going off.  That’s how this event is generally pictured.  But it’s not accurate.  From the initial moment of Creation and as the universe initially expanded, it was a ball of plasma of such incredible heat and density and gravitational forces that no light could have escaped.  Initially there was no light at all, just a swirling opaque mass of pure energy.  It was only when this primordial, primal mass had cooled and expanded to a point where the gravitational forces were reduced enough to permit electromagnetic radiation to escape, that there would have been light.  So was “Let there be light” during this first 8 billion year-day a separate event from the initial creation in both the Bible and science?  Yes, and during the remainder of that first 8 billion year period, the early stars and galaxies formed.

Day 2—7.75 bya to 3.75 bya


Day two, Genesis 1:6-8:  Day two, the heavens as we know them were created, and the chaos that would eventually become the earth was separated from the rest of creation. Cosmic clock, day two, what happened during this period?  Our own galaxy, the Milky Way formed, as did our sun and planet earth in its earliest incarnation.  [7.75 billion years to 3.75 billion years, approximately]  [The Complete History of the Earth: Hadean Eon, 4.544bya to 4.0bya,]


Day 3--3.75bya to 1.75bya


“Day three, Genesis 1:9-13:  (From Genesis) The oceans and the dry land appeared as well as the first forms of plant life.  Now we switch to the arena of paleontology.  What does science say about what happened on earth between 3.75 and 1.75 billion years ago?  Well, some 3.75 billion years ago the earth cooled, liquid water formed, almost immediately.  The first plant and animal life, photosynthetic bacteria and algae appeared.”  (movie The Genesis Code)  Next, from the fossil record found in the rocks:


3.45 billion years ago:  Stromatolites,  formed from microbes, found in rocks dating by radiometric dating of Uranium’s half-life.   Stromatolites were found in rocks in Western Australia.

2.4 billion years ago: Eukaryotes, single-celled organisms whose DNA is compartmentalized within a nucleus—can engulf small food particles—leading to multicellular organisms composed of Eukaryotic cells.  Respiration and photosynthesis are localized within small structures called organelles.  These Eukaryotic cells combine with features found both within cyanobacteria [] and archaean cells []  Oxygen levels increase.  [The Complete History of the Earth: Archean Eon, 4.0bya to 2.5bya,]  Also to read a good article explaining the unique merger of archaea cells and cyanobacteria to create Eukaryotic cells, both of which, by themselves do not have a nucleus inside their cell walls, which alone is a feature of the modern cell, allowing for their coupling together to make more complex and larger lifeforms of animal and plant life as we know it, see this incredible file:

Without this “merger,” however God bioengineered the modern Eukaryotic cell to have a nucleus with it’s own membrane, mitochondria, and for plants chloroplasts, and also housing the genes and DNA within it, larger animal and plant bodies, such as existed from the Ediacaran period, through the Cambrian period, through the dinosaurs, to now would not be possible.  The “construction” or bioengineering of this new form of cell allowed it to become a living sort of “Lego” which could be use to create or construct larger plant and animal lifeforms, something the archaean and cyanobacteria cells weren’t capable of doing.

Day 4--1.75bya to 750mya


“Day four, Genesis 1:14-19:  (From Genesis) The sun, moon and stars appeared.  Same time period, 1.75 billion years to 750 million years.  Paleontologist:  Well, initially in the first part of this period, the atmosphere on earth would have been nearly opaque.  Then with the rising concentrations of oxygen the atmosphere would have become translucent, and then the sun, moon and stars would have appeared for the first time from the surface of the earth.” (movie The Genesis Code)  Next, from the fossil record found in the rocks:


1.8 to 1.6 billion years:  Rocks from this age range from Montana, Australia, China and Siberia, showing oxygen levels about 1 percent of ours are found to have supported a diversity of microorganisms whose preserved cell walls exhibit a structural complexity found today in Eukaryotic organisms.  Oxygen levels in the pre-Cambrian oceans from 3.5 billion years ago to 541 million years ago allowed for only smaller and simpler species, as lower oxygen levels could not allow the energy levels of larger creatures to exist by simple respiration.  From 3.5 billion years ago to 2.4 billion years ago oxygen was nearly non-existent in the atmosphere and oceans.  First cyanobacteria, then algae changed all of that, with mats of them covering the shallow ocean floors.  How do we know oxygen rose significantly 2.4 billion years ago?  Iron will remain in solution in rivers, lakes and ocean in an oxygen-free atmosphere and water.  But when any oxygen appears, even as low as 1 percent, in the atmosphere, the iron precipitates out as iron-oxide, rust, and iron-sulfides, and these iron oxides remain right where they are in the rocks, and are no longer found in solution or in un-oxidized iron deposits found in the rocks.  All un-oxidized iron is found in rocks dating before 2.4 billion years ago.  After 2.4 billion years ago, rust shows up in rocks, and levels of oxygen in the atmosphere rose to near modern levels by 541 million years ago, the Cambrian Period.  By 830 million years ago oxygen levels had risen to about 2 percent of modern levels.  Other chemical and physical changes prepared the Earth for the Cambrian Explosion of life.  Ice caps melted, sea levels rose creating more shallow water habitats.  Rising seas eroded more shoreline adding more minerals to the oceans, such as sulfur, phosphorus and calcium, all essential for oceanic life, sea shell formation and crustacean life, from microscopic to larger animals which will show up in the Cambrian Period.  Even a little oxygen in the atmosphere will weather rocks.  Rain then washes rusted rocks, sulfur, now sulfates into the oceans.  850 to 720 million years ago: nodules of chert, found within the layers of limestone at Spitzbergen, containing abundant and diverse microfossils of cyanobacteria and other microorganisms.  Algae, coming from a partnership between single-celled protozoans and cyanobacterium. [dating of Rhynie chert:]  [see also, for this latest find of Ediacaran cellular life!]

The Complete History of the Earth: Proterozoic Eon, 2.5bya to 541mya:


Day 5--750mya to 250mya


“Day five, Genesis 1:20-23:  (From Genesis) Life is created in the oceans, and the first reptiles and birds appear.  Paleontologist:  750 million years ago to 250 million years ago.  Well initially sea-life would have been dominant, then came the Cambrian Explosion about 530 million years ago, when every species of aquatic animal literally appeared at the same time.  So, instead of like a tree of life, it was more like a bush of life.”  (movie The Genesis Code)  Next, from the fossil record found in the rocks:


Ediacaran Period to Cambrian Period

565 million years ago:  Mistaken Point, Newfoundland, slabs of shale cut thin and examined under a microscope reveal a whole population of wonderful fossils, by the hundreds, frondlike, fanlike, some stood erect.  These are the oldest fossils of animals, non-photosynthesizing, as they dwelt below where sunlight would have allowed photosynthesis.  They ate other organic molecules made by other species.  Some of these fossils are: trichonoplax adhaerens [], Dickensonia [], Bilaterians [], Cnidarians [], Arborea, Kimberella  [].  From 2.4 billion years ago to 541 million years ago oxygen levels rose, due to the photosynthetic activity of cyanobacteria and algae from near non-existent to where they are today.  Large animal species, first in the Cambrian Period’s oceans (541 mya to 485mya), up through the Triassic-Cretaceous Periods of the dinosaur age cannot exist without high levels of oxygen in the atmosphere, near 21 percent.  Day 5 of our Time-Dilation timescale contained what is called the Cambrian Explosion:  Burgess Shale marked the dawn of the Cambrian Period, from 541 million years ago to 485 million years ago.  Paleontologists have carefully cut slabs of dark shale from this small quarry.  Examination has revealed compressions of animals in great anatomical detail.  The rocks date to 510 to 505 million years ago—mid-Cambrian Period.  The pre-historic mud making up this shale is not only filled with conventional fossils but unmineralized carapaces, limbs, gills, digestive tracts and ganglia.  Trilobites [], segmented, multilimbed creatures make up 75 percent of all species found in Cambrian rocks  (Some few showed up in earlier Ediacaran rocks, but lacking the diversity found in Cambrian rocks.)  Some trilobite fossils are the size of a human hand.  A lobster-like creature called anomalocaris canadensis []    (measuring up to 50 centimeters, or just under 2 feet in length).  Oxygen was on the rise as well.  But the difference in number and diversity of species that show up in the Cambrian Period in the Burgess Shale, as opposed to what has been revealed in the Ediacaran Period’s Mistaken Point shale is remarkable.  Chordates, animals  with backbones, show up (chordates would later make up all fish, reptiles, birds and mammals.)  Another genus anthropods (many-legged animals), which make up insects, arachnids and crustaceans.  And finally, Echinoderms [] , from which we get starfish and sea urchins.  As Science News for Students states, “No one really knows what exactly triggered this burst of life, which was unique in our planet’s history.”  Well I would say the answer to their head-scratching question is simply a Master Geneticist far beyond the PhD level was at work here.  Species upon new species were genetically bio-engineered off of the fewer and earlier species that had come before them.  Anthropods include all insects, spiders, crabs, lobsters and shrimp (which would later be bio-engineered off of their Cambrian predecessors).  Some more Burgess Shale fossils include Opanbinia [], a thumb-sized creature which had five mushroom-shaped eyes and a miniature trunk like an elephant’s, which had a handy gripper claw at the end.  Another was Hallucigenmia [], almost all spikes on top and legs on the bottom—a walking armored sea slug.  The Cambrian Period was an entirely ocean-based community of underwater animal life.  [The Complete History of the Earth: Cambrian Period, 541mya to 485mya,]    [see also:]  

Fish Show Up


The Ordovician Period (485-444 mya):  Going from the layer of rocks in the Cambrian Period on up into the next layer, the Ordovician Period, we find things changing, lots of trilobites are still around, but also other skeletal fossils appear in abundance, as in the Richmond, Indiana shales, which virtually drip with fossils such as skeletal remains of clams, snails, squids and octopus, corals, bryozoans (moss animals), brachiopods and sea lilies.  Also species diversity increases dramatically by an order of ten.  Late Ordovician was filled with animals (underwater), corals, massive bryozoans, heavily mineralized sponges, conical relatives of squids—and fish, recognizable by their fins, and tails, but without jaws [].  Full Oceans, Bare Land:  A flight over say Siberia today would reveal thousands of miles of forests—but back during the Cambrian and Ordovician Periods, and maybe into the Silurian Period, when trilobites, oceanic life, even fish thrived, a similar flight over Siberia and other landmasses would have revealed bare rocks, maybe tinted a little bit by microbial slime.  For Early Ordovician plants moving onto land, see [The Complete History of the Earth: Ordovician Period, 485mya to 444mya,]                                                                                                 


The Silurian Period—Full Development of Fish, First Plants Make It Onto Land


[See: The Complete History of the Earth: Silurian Period, ]

ARCTINURUS boltoni.  An ARCTINURUS from the Silurian Rochester Shale. Nice exoskeleton and super detail. ARCTINURUS is in the Order lichida often display grainy texture or have tubercles. Some species have spiny thoracic segments. Often the pygidia are leaf-like in shape and also typically end in spines. Highly sought after trilobites. Arctinurus boltoni (Bigsby, 1825) Silurian Period, Rochester Shale, Middleport Quarry. Middleport, New York.  From Wikipedia we get this description:  Arctinurus boltoni is a large (up to 30 cm) lichid trilobite of the mid-Silurian. This trilobite reached about eight inches in length, though the normal adult carapace was about four inches. It lived in moderately deep-water in semi-tropical regions. Arctinurus fossils have been found in Europe and North America. Arctinurus was first reported during the construction of the Erie Canal through soft Silurian shales and mudstones in upstate New York.[1] Before the late 1990s, complete Arctinurus fossils were very rare. The vast majority of complete specimens were commercially mined near Middleport New York, USA, in a shallow quarry in the Rochester Formation, and the trilobite is now relatively common in museum, university and private collections. Arctinurus tended to have epibionts attached to the carapace.


Ediacaran Period—830mya to 541mya

Cambrian Period—541mya to 485mya

Silurian Period—444mya to 419mya

Devonian Period—419mya to 359mya

Carboniferous Period—359mya to 299mya

Permian Period—299mya to 252mya


First Appearance Of Plants On Land


Rhynie shales:  We’re still in Day 5 of our time-dilated calculation for the six days of Genesis 1 (750 million years ago to 250 million years ago).  Going into the Devonian Period starting in 419 million years ago and on into the mid-Devonian Period--407 million years ago--land plants show up in the shales of Rhynie, Scotland.  It is paleobotany’s counterpart to the Burgess Shale.  What is amazing is that plants have had to make a giant genetic and anatomical leap from primitive algae (850 mya to 720mya), a single-celled plant that forms colonies in water, and transform from that, from what can only be through a feat of genetic bio-engineering to what we find in the shales of Rhynie chert.  First let’s see what anatomical changes must be made, and don’t forget, the genes and DNA within them have to be re-programmed for these changes in anatomy found in the Rhynia plants found within the Rhynie chert.  1) A plant (unlike its water-bound cousins from algae to seaweeds) must have a way of avoiding desiccation, water loss within its cellular structure. 2) Unlike underwater plants, land plants must have a solid means of mechanical support to hold them upright. 3) Unlike water-bound plants that can rapidly absorb nutrients and oxygen from surrounding water, land plants must have a specialized means of resource acquisition, namely a root system—that will, 1) anchor the plant in the ground, 2) allow the plant to take up water and nutrients into the rest of the plant.  Rhynia [] was an early plant found within the shale of Rhynie, Scotland in 407 million year old rock.  It consisted of naked photosynthetic axes, pencil-sized structures that ran along the ground and periodically produced vertical branches that reached upward about 8 inches. The axes were coated with a thin coating of waxes and fatty acids called cuticle, that prevented desiccation or loss of water from the plant cells.  Like modern plants, it had opening and closing stomata to allow carbon dioxide to enter and to prevent water loss.  Without cuticle and stomata land plants wouldn’t be possible.  From algae to Rhynia it took a massive amount of intelligent genetic bio-engineering to bring oceanic plants, even as advanced as sea-weeds, onto land.  And Rhynia plants still lacked wood, leaves and a modern root system.  It had a nob at the top to distribute spores for reproduction.  It also had a primitive plant vascular system to carry water and nutrients along its horizontal and vertical axes.  It photosynthesized water and carbon dioxide into basic sugars like all plants that would come from it.  The formula is C0-2 + H-2-0 = CH-2 + 0-2.  So, Rhynia made basic sugar, which was transformed into cellulose, plus it released oxygen into the atmosphere.  So Rhynie chert preserves photosynthetic pioneers of modern plants, in what I say is catching God in the act of a complex bio-engineering project at the gene and DNA level, however he did it.  Fragments of other fossils older than Rhynia show precursors of land plants made a foothold some 50 million years before Rhynia, or about 450 million years ago in the late Ordovician Period.  Moving forward from Rhynie another 50 million years takes us into the Carboniferous Period.  But we’re not there yet. 


“Continued Evolution” (or bio-engineering) of Fish


Devonian Period, 419 million years ago to 359 million years ago:  the age of fish continues:  This is still Day 5 on our time-dilation scale (750mya to 250mya).  Not just known as the age when plants first appeared on land, but also the age of fish.  Although real fish first appeared in the Ordovician Period, some of these fish had somehow developed a bone cleithrum forming the posterior margin of the gill chamber, and also the anchor for the pectoral fins, allowing a movable joint at the base of these fins in early bony fishes, which would later function as weight-bearing structures in tetrapods.  Lungs before land:  Some fish appear with air bladders, which they used both for buoyancy and breathing, a dual role shared with the gills.  Kenichthys [] established themselves in waterways and brackish estuaries, becoming the most numerous of the bony fishes throughout the Devonian Period and most of the Carboniferous Period.  The bones of their skull roof was broadly similar to those of early tetrapods.  Their paired fins had a build quite similar to the humerus, ulna, and radius of tetrapods in their fore fins and to the femur, tibia and fibula of tetrapods in their pelvic fins.  Primitive tetrapods appear to have been bio-engineered from the  tetrapodomorph lobed-finned fish sarcopterygian-crossopterygian, Osteolepiformes, [],  Fins to feet:  the oldest tetrapodomorph is Kenichthys from China, dated to around 395 million years old (mid-Devonian) rocks.  The earliest tetrapodomorphs dating from 380 million years ago, were Gogonasus [], lobed-finned fish known from three-dimensionally preserved fossils found from the Gogo formation in Western Australia, and lived in the late Devonian Period, and also Panderichtthys [].    Comparative biology and molecular sequence analysis show that tetrapod vertebrates are close relatives of a specific group called the lobed-finned fishes—the smoking gun pointing toward our Master Geneticist’s next “Genetically Modified Organism” the Tiktaalik.  So a major tetrapodomorph animal is the Tiktaalik [  and].  The morphological gap between fish and tetrapods remains large.  Again, what anatomical changes were required to bridge this gap?  Vertebrates required these changes to go from an aquatic environment onto land:  1) They need lungs to breath air, and big rib cages, extending from the backbone to support the functioning of the lung’s muscles to enable breathing.  2) The bones making up the shoulder girdle had to be separated from the skull.  3) Both structural support of their bodies and enabling locomotion of land vertebrates required muscular limbs attached to pronounced pelvic and shoulder girdles separate from the skull.  A remarkable discovery was made in 375-million-year-old rocks in Arctic Canada, the Tiktaalik.  Tiktaalik had a body resembling a lobe-finned fish, breathing by gills and lungs, had a shoulder girdle separate from the skull by a neck, supporting muscles required for limb-like locomotion and body support.  It could breathe air and capture prey in its jaws, on land and in water.  Also fossilized trackways on surfaces of sedimentary beds provide independent evidence that by the late-Devonian vertebrates began to colonize dry land (estimated 300 million years ago).  The first record of plants on land as we’ve seen was 407 million years ago, the Rhynia, in the early Devonian Period.  From the Silurian Period on into the late-Devonian through plants had stabilized in freshwater habitats, allowing wetland ecosystems to develop, God genetically diversifying plant species on into the Carboniferous Period, the Age of Plants…


Carboniferous tetrapods—Devonian-Carboniferous transition (350mya)—Romer’s Gap: beginning to mid-Carboniferous Period.

The earliest confirmed terrestrial forms of tetrapods are known from the Carboniferous deposits, such as Ichthyostega [].  Until the 1990s there was a 30 million year gap in the fossil record between the late-Devonian tetrapods and the appearance of tetrapod fossils in mid-Carboniferous amphibian lineages.  During this “Gap” tetrapod backbones developed, as did limbs with digits and other adaptions [genetically modified] for terrestrial life.  For an organism to live in a gravity-neutral aqueous environment, and then to colonize one that requires it to support its entire weight as well as all the anatomical changes necessary required significant genetic modification.  We find evidence of this in the mid-Carboniferous Period when early tetrapods “radiated” (i.e. they were genetically modified) into at least three to four main branches.  Some of these branches of tetrapods were: anthracosaurs [], which were relatives of modern frogs, salamanders, etc., Anthracosauria, extinct reptile-like amphibians, Reptiliomorpha [], crocodilian-like aquatic tetrapods also known as embolomeres, [] Eryops megacephalus []


A picture containing reptile

Eryops megacephalus

  Seymouria baylorensis.   A close-up of a lizard

Amniotes:  late-Carboniferous.  Today includes reptiles, mammals and birds appeared in the late-Carboniferous Period.  Going through the Permian Period (299-252mya) and into the Triassic Period this group (the amniotes) had diversified (via genetic modification) into the earliest mammals, turtles and crocodiles (lizards and birds not appearing until the Jurassic Period, and snakes in the Cretaceous).

The Carboniferous Period around 307 million years ago suffered from about three ice ages, cooling and drying the planet, causing major plant extinctions, lowering oceans, killing off many amphibians through loss of habitat.

Permian tetrapods (299mya to 252mya):  amphibia (labyrinthodonts), emnospondyl, anthracosaurs, sauropsida [] and synapsida [].  During the Permian Period the distinction was less clear, amniote fauna being typically described as either reptile or mammal-like reptile.  Permian-Triassic Extinction Level Event:  Probably the most severe mass extinction event of the Phanerozoic Era (541mya to present), was the largest known mass extinction, which occurred 252 million years ago at the end of the Permian Period.  In the rocks exposed at Meishan, China near its base, the limestone bristles with fossils of late-Permian brachiopods    [], bryozoans [], echinoderms [], large skeletalized protists [], distributed on the shallow seafloor.  Halfway up the rockface these fossils disappear, all of them, all at the thickness of a knife-blade.  On the upper side of this divide we see only a few fossils, mainly clams and snails.  What happened?  The Siberian Traps (252 million years ago) [] located east of the Ural Mountains we find the geologic evidence of a HUGE, massive outpouring of basaltic rock—the extent of these eruptions of magma measures about 3,000 square miles, with an estimated volume of 1 million cubic miles, more than 8,000 feet thick.  Radiometric dating shows these huge eruptions coincide with the dates of the Meishan extinction layer.  Volcanic eruptions emit massive amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.  The amount released by the Siberian Traps eruptions increased overall carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere and oceans 7-fold.  1) This would have warmed the atmospheric temperatures considerably, 2) causing oceanic acidification, and 3) oxygen depletion (especially in the oceans).  Land-based respiring animals and plants would have weathered this pretty well, but in the oceans the effects, as evidenced in the Meishan rocks, was pretty devastating.  Clams, snails and fish experienced few extinctions, doing fairly well, including decapod crustaceans such as shrimp, crabs and lobsters.  Most of the other pre-Triassic ocean species died out, leaving us with many of the modern species we’re familiar with.


As land-based plants took over the landmass of the continents the interaction of roots, fungi, accumulating plant debris and microbes, bacteria and later earthworms, releasing organic acids, created the soils needed for further plant growth all the way through the Devonian, Carboniferous and Permian Periods, and on into the Mesozoic Era of the dinosaurs.  Much of Earth’s coal formed from plant debris in wetlands from the Carboniferous Period.  Giant insects, as well as giant tree-sized ferns and mosses over 100 feet tall grew in this period.


Day 6—250 million years ago to present


“Day six, Genesis 1:24-27:  (From Genesis) The land animals became dominant, and God created man in his own image.  Paleontology and science:  250,000,000 years ago until the appearance of Adam.  Well 250 million years ago there was a mass extinction (the Siberian Traps eruption), 90 percent of life on earth died, followed by a rapid repopulation, land animals now predominating.  That was the Permian-Triassic event.  Depending on how you defined them, there have been between 5 and 20 E.L.E.s or Extinction Level Events (like in the movie Deep Impact but worse).  Anyway, about 35 million years later, around 250,000,000 years ago, the dinosaurs appeared and dominated life on earth for about 150,000,000 years.  Then 65,000,000 years ago another E.L.E. occurred, this one known as the KT Extinction, which killed off the dinosaurs. [Comment: Some think all life on the planet, down to the plankton level in the world’s oceans was killed off during this KT extinction level event.  But according to recent paleontological evidence, not all life died off during the KT-barrier extinction level event.  See, which describes this E.L.E.  Some believe the E.L.E.’s point to specific creations and recreations of life on earth, plural, and not necessarily macro evolution of the various species, as we’ve seen before, in the Gap Theory explanation.]  And this opened the way for mammals and birds to become dominant, and then the first hominids, and finally human beings as we know them appeared.  Today the Cosmic clock continues to tick to measure the passage of time at the Cosmos level.  And as the universe continues to expand, the rate at which it measures time continues to slow.  But that doesn’t mean anything to us now.  From the moment God breathed life into Adam and when God gave man his soul, we on earth have denoted the passage of time by our earth-based clocks, where one second is part of one day, which reflects the rotation of earth on it’s axis, and a year that marks the completion of one earth circuit of the sun.  What if there isn’t any God?  The idea that Moses or anyone else at the time Genesis was written, when most people believed the world was flat, that could have created a story that so perfectly reflects what science has proven to be true, all on its secular own (without God), to believe that, for me anyway, is harder then to believe in God.  What we are talking about here today is a result of applying proven science to the issue.  This is a scientifically derived answer to the question with no spin or subjective interpretation.  So you see, science and it’s 15.75 billion years and the six days of Genesis are in complete accord.  Science has proven what religious leaders have been unable to prove for thousands of years.  But in reality science has just caught up with the truth of the Bible.  Science has simply deciphered the Genesis code.  I think what I find most amazing about this is the uncanny brilliance of Biblical Genesis, which is presented to us in such a way that mankind had to evolve to its current level before we were able to understand the story as it was originally written.  That’s it!” (quoted  from the movie The Genesis Code, Copyright © 2010 American Epic Entertainment, LLC, all rights reserved. © 2010 Genesis Productions LLC, 22 Harbor Park Drive Port Washington, NY  11050) transcript of the physics section of the movie The Genesis Code, with slight editing for clarity.  All the other information was taken from various Wikipedia sources and Andrew Knoll’s incredible paleo-geologic history of Earth, titled “A Brief History of Earth, (four billion years in eight chapters)] Next, from the fossil record found in the rocks for Day 6:


The Mesozoic Era—The Age of Dinosaurs


The Mesozoic Era encompassed the period of time from 252 million years ago to 66 million years ago, from the Triassic Period, Jurassic Period and through the Cretaceous Period.  Diapsids [], a large reptile group including lizards, snakes, crocodiles, dinosaurs and pterosaurs began to, as the evolutionists call it, “diversify” during the Triassic Period.  i.e. the amphibian species we’ve looked at in the Permian Period were “genetically modified” into the diapsid group just mentioned.  During the Triassic Period, one group called Cynodontia [] gave rise to Mammalia (which survived the K-T Barrier extinction into our present Cenozoic Era).  Within the 50 million years of the Triassic Period tetrapod diversity (by way of genetic modification) came to include both carnivores and herbivores, divided between amphibians (crocodile-like reptiles) and amniotes (reptiles, birds, turtles and mammals).  Dominant trees were conifers, Ginkos and other seed plants with ferns only playing a minor role.  These “modern” plants radiating via genetic modification out only in the late Jurassic Period and into the early Cretaceous Period (150-140 million years ago), along with pterosaurs and dinosauromorphs.  The Triassic landscape (252-201mya) was filled with agile large reptiles, both carnivores and herbivores, but not true dinosaurs, which were not in abundance or diverse.  Dinosaurs rose to prominence because they survived the late-Triassic extinction level event, another major volcanic eruption like the Siberian Traps, but this one extended from Fingal’s Cave in Scotland to the Palisades of New York to the Black Cliffs of Morocco’s Atlas Mountains, and on into the Amazon rain forest.  An estimated 40 percent of all genera and up to 70 percent of species disappeared from the oceans.  On land Triassic diversity of vertebrates was cut way back by this volcanism including diverse crocodilians.  But dinosaurs and mammalian ancestors survived and expanded filling the gaps left by the extinction of other land species.  [Why Were Triassic Animals so Weird?]       []                                                                                 

Dinosaur sizes:  Dinosaurs tended toward large sizes, the large sauropods [], What Was the Earth Like When Dinosaurs Were Around?   

Triassic Period—252mya to 201mya

Jurassic Period—201mya to 145mya

Cretaceous Period—145mya to 66mya


Large sauropods were genetically modified to have long necks enabling them to feed on large amounts of treetop sources of food with ease.  Their necks and skeletal structures were designed with bird-like hollow spaces, keeping them light and strong, allowing for long necks.  The heads of these herbivore sauropods with these long necks were designed to be small, keeping weight down, again allowing for long necks with a proper weight to muscle strength to allow for this length.  Again, their DNA and genes just didn’t up and decide to produce longer necks with a strong but lightweight skeletal structure with small heads at the end of them.  That “blind evolution” could have achieved this perfection of design is quite hard to believe.  The Titanosaurs reached up to 120 feet (37m) in length and weighed 70 to 90 tons.  Their remarkable necks enabled them to reach food not available to other plant eaters.  Unlike crocodiles, some of which did survive the end-Triassic E.L.E., the large dinosaurs (carnivore and herbivore) had a bird-like respiratory system, allowing for a far greater transport of oxygen through their huge bodies.  Sauropods had high metabolic rates, enabling rapid growth from egg to full-sized adult dinosaur.  Due to the size verses volume of their cellular mass, their metabolism gave them internal temperatures ranging from 97 to 100 degrees F., much like modern living mammals.  As sauropods were modified into these large sizes, the carnivores went through similar “genetic modification” into larger sizes, thus maintaining a balance between herbivores and carnivores.  Early mammals lived in the same communities with the dinosaurs, but they were small, enabling them to keep out of their way, unnoticed as it were.  As Huxley said in 1868 “The road from reptiles to birds is by way of Dinosauria…wings grew out of forelimbs” (I’d say by genetic modification, of course).  A small dinosaur found in late-Triassic and early Jurassic rocks was the Archeopteryx [], the skull modified to resemble the bills of birds, but jaws lined with teeth, and it was covered in feathers.  The dinosaur-bird connection has been reenforced by dozens of new discoveries in Cretaceous beds in China, dinosaurs closely related to birds sporting feathers and elongated limbs, again, later genetically modified to be able to fly.  Pterosaurs were the first to fly, being flying reptiles, some of immense size, but with lightweight hollow skeletons.  Soon these “birdomorphs” would follow. [How the Tyrannosaurs Ruled the World – with David Hone, 201mya to 66mya,] [Cretaceous Era (Part one) : The pinnacle of the dinosaurs reign, and]


K-T Barrier Extinction


In the town of Gubbio, Italy the rocks on the canyon walls reveal layer upon layer, as you go up the canyon walls, of calcium carbonate, limestone, filled with microscopic fossils dating to the Cretaceous Period.  Above hundreds of these limestone beds a thin layer of clay appears.  Above this layer very few of those microfossils appear that are below this clay layer.  This line of clay dates to 65-66 million years ago.  Naturally occurring iridium is a radioactive element found mainly in meteorites and micrometeorites.  It is not a naturally occurring element found on earth’s surface outside of its meteorite source.  This iridium is deposited all around the world at a steady slow rate.  Within these layers of limestone above and below this layer of clay a steady low rate of iridium deposit is found.  But Walter Alvarez and his father Luis Alvarez discovered that the amount of iridium levels within this layer of clay were much higher and apparently deposited all at once.  From the levels of iridium, the Alvarez’s were able to calculate the size of the meteorite that struck the Earth 66 million years ago, and it calculated out to be about 7 square miles in diameter.  Travelling at the estimated speed of comets, which travel at 40,000 miles per hour, this thing struct what is now the Yucatan Peninsula on the Mexican Gulf of Mexico, carving out an underwater crater 125 miles in diameter.  All the dinosaurs died out, some within the fiery blast range, immediately, others died within weeks, as Earth’s lush vegetation died out sufficiently due to the “nuclear winter” effects, starving to death on a rapidly cooling planet.  Fish fared better, as evidenced by the living fossil, the Coelacanth, a lobed-finned fish only seen in fossil rocks older than 66 million years ago, until one was caught off South Africa by a fisherman in his nets in 1938.  Crocodiles, dating back to the Triassic Period, survived as well, as some of their primary food sources, fish, survived.  Mammals as well survived away from the blast zone—with God again resuming his project of genetic modification, giving us all the modern Cenozoic species of land plants and animal species we’re familiar with.  Andrew Knoll, in his wonderful and excellent book “Brief History of Earth” says this about Earth’s extinction level events, and I quote: “Common causation is out of the window—different events relate to meteorites, ice ages, and massive volcanism.  Where we do find common ground is that in each case, environmental disruption was rapid; the rate of environmental change was as important as its magnitude.  When environmental change is slow, populations can adapt [through population genetics and natural selection] to their shifting circumstances, but when it is fast, leaving migration or extinction as the only available options.  Mass extinctions reflect transient but profound environmental disruption, driven by mechanisms within the Earth or elsewhere in our neighborhood.  While the timescale of mass extinction is short, however, rebuilding diversity is more protracted—fossils tell us that recovery from major extinction takes a long time—hundreds of thousands or even millions of years.  Mass extinctions have clearly played a major role in shaping evolutionary history.  The modern world is full of animals in part because dinosaurs became extinct.  Fish in open ocean radiated only after end-Cretaceous mass extinction eliminated ammonites.  Reefs today contain modern corals, mollusks, and crabs not so much because they outcompeted the tabulate corals, brachiopods, and trilobites, but because mass extinction decimated those groups.  When you trek through a rain forest or snorkel above a coral reef, you might reflect that you’re surveying the survivors of Earth’s repeated mass extinctions.” [Why did Crocodiles Survive and Dinosaurs Die?, Last Days of the Dinosaurs, and]   


Still Day 6--252 million years ago to present

After the K-T Barrier Extinctions: the Cenozoic Era


Following the catastrophe of this huge meteorite impact, as the initial fires died down, the surviving species diversified into all the species we’re familiar with by way of God’s genetic modification processes.  Over the next 15 million years the planet warmed due to the large rise of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, the result of 500,000 years of volcanic eruptions on the Indian subcontinent, the Deccan Traps [], perhaps set off by the Yucatan meteorite impact.  As a result you had palm trees and alligators in Alaska and the Canadian Arctic.  With the extinction of dinosaurs Earth became safely available for the spread and growth of all the Mammalian species we see today.  The continents spread out as the super-continent Pangaea broke up, giving us the Atlantic Ocean, the Rockies, Alps, and Himalaya Mountain ranges.  As a result of weathering rates as rocks reacted to rain, and these higher atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide reacting in solution to water forming carbolic acid, ate away with the rocks exposed on the continents.  This carbolic acid then reacted with calcium ions in the ocean to precipitate CaC0-3, calcium carbonate.  This process scrubbed the excess carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere, gradually lowering Earth’s temperature.  Palms, alligators and all warmth-loving species moved south.  By 35 million years ago, 30 million years after the K-T Barrier extinction, glaciers began to spread across Antarctica. 


Hominins to Man


The record of the rocks shows primates, genetically modified into diverse but related species such as lemurs, tarsiers, monkeys and the primates Homo sapiens descended from, the great apes.  6 to 7 million years ago in the African continent a new lineage of great apes was “genetically modified” from what later became chimps and bonobos.  These were called hominins [], which were broadly chimp-like, but these hominins were distinct in one critical way, they could walk upright. Genetic modification obviously took place that resulted in these anatomical changes that would lead to the “Homo” species being able to walk erect, giving a posture enabling upright locomotion.  These were those anatomical changes: 1) a curved spine to balance the upright trunk, 2) a reconfigured pelvis to facilitate muscles needed for walking, 3) a vertical oriented neck that places the head atop the body, 4) and an arched foot with a prominent heel.  We all have these features, as do all hominins, even the earliest ones.  Fragments of their skeletons appear in 6 to 7 million year old rocks.  But the best complete skeleton shows up in the 4.4 million year old rocks of Ethiopia, Ardipithecus ramidus, Ardi for short [].  Ardi could climb but could also walk upright, being capable of bipedal locomotion.  About a million years later than Ardi, 3.2 million years ago a group of hominins appears in the record of the rocks, Australopithecines [].  Australopithecine bones are fairly common, but again, an excellent full skeleton was discovered and named “Lucy.”   [] “Lucy” was discovered in 3.2 million year old rocks in Ethiopia, she had larger hips, larger brain, arched feet, and a short big toe, and walked upright with greater ease.  Mary Leakey discovered an amazing set of footprints of a man, woman and child in 3.7 million year old rocks in Tanzania, walking across what was once wet volcanic ash in a 90-foot trackway, later buried in another layer of ash.  These footprints were of Australopithecines.  Other evidence shows Australopithecines were fashioning primitive tools of stone.  [Here’s an interesting speculative article about what Australopithecines may have been like:]  See video “The History of Hominins,” at:

Fast forward another million years, from the Australopithecines of 3.2 million years now to 1.9 million years when Homo erectus [] appears in the rocks.  The fossil record shows about 13 “Homo” species have been categorized, all of them now extinct except for Homo sapiens.  Homo erectus lived from 1.9 million years ago to about 250,000 years ago (overlapping Homo sapiens for the last 50,000 years of their existence).  Homo erectus is about halfway between the early Australopithecines and modern humans in their anatomy.  Homo erectus spread from Africa throughout Eurasia, living and well-established on the ground.  They were hunter-gatherers.  The oldest Homo sapiens occur in 300,000 year old rocks from Morocco  [] They made tools and used fire.  Homo sapiens co-inhabited the Earth with three other “Homo” species, Neanderthals [], sophisticated hunter-gatherers, Homo florensiensis []  (a small relative nicknamed “the Hobbit”), and the Denisovians  [], whose fragmentary skeletal remains appear in 50,000-to-30,000 year old caves in Siberia, their DNA preserved in a finger bone.  Most of our DNA contains some of that of Neanderthals, and Asian populations contain DNA from Denisovians.  From 70 to 50 thousand years ago these later three “Homo” species co-existed and spread out throughout Europe and Asia.  Paleontologists say “by 10,000 years they were all gone” and they ask “what happened?”  And they don’t have an answer.  But methods of dating from 10,000 years to present switches over to the Carbon-14 method of dating, which beyond 3.000 years is inaccurate due to the unstable steady-state of C-14 levels in the upper atmosphere.  I had the opportunity to ask a technician who worked with the early rocket probes we launched into the upper atmosphere, the Wac-Corporal rockets atop captured German V-2 rocket first stages.  One of his jobs was to check the data when the nosecone instrument package parachuted back to Earth.  Having just read an article saying C-14 dating was inaccurate beyond 3,000 years, that it expanded the dates, based on unstable C-14 levels in the atmosphere, I asked him about those C-14 readings they were taking, and he said, matter-of-factly, straight-faced, “The C-14 levels in  the upper atmosphere have not reached any steady-state, the levels are all over the place.”   So 10,000 years ago, as measured by C-14 could really be 4,000 years ago, or 2,000 BC.  And what occurred approximately 2,000 BC?  The Great Flood of Noah’s time, recorded in the Bible as well as in the writings of numerous other ancient civilizations.  This E.L.E., extinction level event, would have caused the extinction of all other forms of “Homo” species on earth, leaving Homo sapiens and the animal fauna we see today, literal descendants of the inhabitants on Noah’s Ark—Neanderthals, Homo florensiensis, Denisovians gone, except for traces of their DNA in our genes.  (The method of dating from 15,000 to 20,000 years is usually accomplished by the C-14 method, proven to be far less accurate, tending to expand time, whereas from 40,000 years ago to millions of years and billions of years ago, dating is calculated by radiometric measurements of the decay half-life of Uranium, usually U-238, found in the rocks containing the fossils being studied, as found in the chert we discussed.  This method of dating is highly accurate.  Paleontologists record that these early Homo sapiens at around 11,000 years ago were found to have migrated into what we call “the Fertile Crescent,” from Israel, Jordan, Syria, Turkey and Iraq.  But considering this C-14 dating being used for this date of 11,000 years ago expanding time, this would be really about 6,000 years ago, the time of Genesis 1 & 2, when God placed the “spirit-in-man,” the human “spirit in man,” and gave man ‘dominion over the fishes of the sea, birds of the air, and the animals and all lifeforms on dry land.’  Mankind, at the time when the species Homo sapiens was complete, this species was given by God what the Bible calls “the human spirit,” “the spirit of man,” or “the spirit-in-man.”  The apostle Paul talks of this human spirit in 1st Corinthians 2:9-13, that this “human spirit,” being a non-physical spirit that imparts human intelligence far, far beyond that found in any animal on Earth.  God said in Genesis that he created man in his own image, “in the image of God created he him.”  Paleontologists record that at this 11,000 year mark, our 6,000 years ago, equating to Genesis 2 and beyond, “within a thousand years, here people first developed agriculture, learning to grow and harvest figs, barley, chick peas, and lentils…sheep, goats, pigs, and cattle had been domesticated.”  Most definitely this is evidence of God having placed “the spirit-in-man,” like software for the human brain, into man.  Homo sapiens were the pinnacle and end-product of all the lifeforms that appear in the fossil record—the direct result of “genetic modification” through the flipping of genetic “gene switches” by a Master Geneticist, the same Being who created the first primitive living cells by direct divine fiat, in the early oceans.  But what makes a man a creation of God in the image of God, is the undeniable fact that mankind, Homo sapiens is the only species on Earth that “designs and creates” creations created out of the chemicals found on Earth.  We’re “creators” on a lesser level, but just like God.  No other animal, even the most intelligent have that ability, they don’t even come close to that mental output of the human mind contained in the human brain (combined with the “human spirit, the spirit in man.”)  We can understand myriad languages, science, mathematics, physics, astronomy, history, literature, poetry, using the written word, which we created as well.  We have created modes of locomotion, first sail, then steam engines, gasoline and diesel engines, steam and jet turbine engines, aircraft from glider to propeller to jet and rockets, and then spacecraft flying to the Moon, printing presses, books, newspapers, magazines, radios, tape-recorders, phonographs, televisions, cameras, motion picture and television cameras, video cameras, computers, cell-phones with miniature computers in them, scuba gear taking us underwater, submarines, ships, automobiles (both gasoline, diesel and electric), buildings (both high-rise and low), cities, railroads, and street-highway infrastructure.  The list can and does go on.  The point is, man is a “creator” just like, to a far lesser degree, the Creator God who created him and all lifeforms, past and present.  There is no denying it.  Whether Homo sapiens are a “representative Adam” found at the end of Genesis chapter 1, or God actually took one of those fully developed Homo sapiens and called him Adam and placed him in “the Garden of Eden,” again, you can believe what you want to believe, it won’t affect your salvation in one tiny bit, it’s immaterial, we’ll all be finding out pretty soon at the Wedding Feast of the Lamb (cf. Revelation 19:7-10).  My personal guess is that God took a Homo sapien man and placed him in Eden, and specifically created Eve out of one of his ribs, thus starting a new race of Homo sapiens out of this Adam & Eve couple.  This couple became sort of the royal family, as all other Homo sapiens continued to live outside of this territory of Eden.  The Flood at the time of Noah, a universal flood, was a real extinction level event for terrestrial animal and human life, and brought about the extinction of any remaining other “Homo” species of man, as well as all other Homo sapiens alive at the time of this universal flood.  From Noah onward, with his three sons and their wives, they repopulated the Earth with this one line of Homo sapiens that came out of Eden,  from Adam and Eve’s progeny (remember God said Noah’s line was pure, going back to Adam).  By the way, that is my personal guess, interpretation of Scripture combined with the fossil record, which by the way is accurate, the rocks don’t lie.  Their record is written in stone, no pun intended.  You don’t have to believe my interpretation.  I’ll find out if my speculative interpretation is correct when the rest of you find out, at that fantastic Wedding Feast of the Lamb, Jesus Christ.  The Bible gives us the barest skeletal outline of this ancient history of man, giving us in my opinion, a sort of royal lineage from Adam, Cain and Seth, through Noah, the flood, and continuing on through Noah’s three sons and their wives and children that would come from them, and then God’s line of Homo sapiens takes over the earth through Noah’s progeny. 

Time Chart For Appearance of Man

Basic hominins appear: 6-7 mya

Ardipithecus ramidus, “Ardi”:  4.4mya

Australopithecines, “Lucy”: 3.2 mya

First tools crafted: 3.3 mya

Australopithecines, 4.4 mya—to Homo erectus, 1.9mya

Homo erectus, 1.9mya to 250,000 ya—to 250,000 ya—(living firmly on the ground, hunting and food gathering, Earth sliding into an Ice Age)—

To Homo sapiens, 300,000 ya to now.  Homo sapiens shared Ice Age Earth with three other Homo species:

          Neanderthals (sophisticated hunter-gatherers)

          Homo florensiensis (a diminutive relative named “the Hobbit”)

          Denisovians—50,000 ya to 30,000 ya

All four species occasionally interbred


Neo-Darwinism:  Population Genetics


“In 1944 George Gaylord Simpson wrote Tempo and Mode in Evolution.  Simpson argued that evolution patterns defined by fossils reflect population genetics [] as the mechanism underlying natural selection and hence evolutionary change through time” Andrew Knoll states in his wonderful book on the paleo-geologic history of the Earth, “Brief History of the Earth, Four Billion Years In Eight Chapters.”  But taking into consideration the incredible leap in anatomical change species have taken, from say for plants, going from single-celled algae living in water to the complexity of Rhynia on land over 2.5 billion years later, 407 million years ago, and then multiplying in diversity of plant complexity in all the plant-life in the Devonian through the Carboniferous Periods can never be properly explained by population genetics combined with natural selection.  And the same applies to the singled-celled animal protozoans “evolving” by population genetics combined with natural selection to become all the diverse animal species in the Cambrian oceans, evolving then into fish, clams, shrimp, crabs and lobster-like crustaceans through the Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous and Permian seas—all the way to fish becoming amphibian air-breathing tetrapods, and then becoming fully land-dwelling tetrapods—four-legged animals roaming the terrestrial Earth.  Population genetics coupled to natural selection can never properly account for these massive genetic and anatomical changes that early single-celled ocean-dwelling life went through to become what we see later in the geologic-fossil record or what we see on Earth today.  Population genetics, combined with natural selection, can explain why modern corals, which everyone predicted were going to die off in rapidly warming oceans, why these corals in Hawaii and Australia’s Great Barrier Reef can now tolerate temperature rises of more than 2 degrees C.  Population genetics and natural selection can explain why a volcanic caldera lake in the Philippines, that used to be connected to the saltwater ocean—filled with saltwater species of fish, including Jacks—and during an eruption about 100 years ago got cut off from the ocean, and slowly turned from brackish to freshwater—that over that 100+ years the fish in this caldera lake became totally adapted to freshwater.  Population genetics and natural selection can and does explain how that was possible.  But population genetics cannot properly explain how algae “evolved” into land plants and then trees, grass, shrubs and all the plants we have on Earth today.  Another thing, all the biota of each Era and Period of time in the paleo-geologic record was a totally balanced biota, a keen and incredible balance between herbivore and carnivore species and between plant and animal species, from the beginning of life on Earth right up to now.  Riley Black, in her incredible book “The Last Days of the Dinosaurs” made this statement, which proves my thesis that there are genetic “gene switches” which can be turned on and off.  She believes these “gene switches” have only been turned on or off by mutations, but my premise is that from the first creation of the proto-cellular life by an all-wise God, bio-engineering by the turning on and off of genetic “gene switches” has been creating via “theistic evolution” the various biota of life down through the geologic ages.  Although Riley Black believes in blind evolution, I find that hard to believe in, given the complexity of life throughout the geologic record and all these balanced biota throughout the ages, to say nothing of the complexity of the DNA code of life, which to me points to intelligent design of a Master geneticist.  She made a statement which points to the flipping of genetic “gene switches” which in my estimation points to a Master geneticist bringing about the “theistic evolution” of all life on the planet, past and present.  She stated “Nor can birds evolve to have teeth or claws.  The genes for these weapons and tools are still in their bodies, but they have been shut off by mutations [she says mutations, I say by the Master geneticist, God Almighty] and slowly degraded over time.  There is no evolutionary switch that can just turn them back on.”  That last sentence is no longer true for GMO geneticists in the lab, they can turn those ancient gene switches back on, they just haven’t chosen to do so at present.  If a PhD level geneticist can do that, God as a Master geneticist can certainly control the theistic evolution of the species down through the ages, creating whatever balanced biota he wishes. [quote, emphasis mine, “The Last Days of the Dinosaurs” by Riley Black, p. 183]  


“What Is A Genetic Engineer?”


“Genetic engineers are highly trained experts who use a variety of molecular tools and technologies to rearrange fragments of DNA.  The overall goal in doing so is to add or remove an organism’s genetic makeup for the better, or to transfer DNA code from one species into the other.  The overall goal of this is to enhance organisms so that they are better able to thrive in certain environments.  An example is when a plant is modified to thrive better in drought conditions…


“Education and Training”


“To become a genetic engineer, the bare minimum education requirement will be a Bachelor’s degree in biochemistry, biophysics, molecular biology, or molecular genetics.  However, in most cases it will be much more beneficial to have a Master’s or Doctorate level degree in molecular genetics or molecular biology instead.  Undergraduate degrees may provide an initial entry point into the field, but holding a PhD is the primary path used to enter the field and conduct your own work.”


“How Are GMO’s Made?”


“GMO (genetically modified organism) has become the common term consumers and popular media use to describe foods that have been created through genetic engineering.  Genetic engineering is a process that involves: 1) Identifying the genetic information—or “gene”—that gives an organism a desired trait. 2) Copying that information from the organism that has that trait. 3) Inserting that information into the DNA of another organism. 4) Then growing the new organism.” [from]

Of the animals geneticists have modified are pigs, chickens, cows, and salmon (which grow to full size in half the time).  I recently heard that a geneticist discovered a “dormant” gene in chickens, which if triggered, caused the chickens to grow teeth, a bio-engineering feat which would walk the chicken back toward its raptor ancestors from which it came.  My point is, genetic change over eons of time has not been through “blind evolution,” but has been the work of a Master Geneticist, the Creator God of the Universe and all terrestrial and aquatic life on planet Earth. 

Be sure to order your own copy of the movie “The Genesis Code” at:

“A Brief History of Earth, Four Billion Years in Eight Chapters” by Andrew H. Knoll, Custom House, © 2021”

See: A Brief History of Geologic Time:


Six Days of Genesis 1 By Time-Dilation of Relativity

   Length of Day


Day 1 = 15.75 bya to 7.75bya  (8by)


Day 2 = 7.75bya to 3.75bya     (4by)


Day 3 = 3.75bya to 1.75bya     (2by)


Day 4 = 1.75bya to 750mya     (1by)


Day 5 = 750mya to 250mya     (500my)


Day 6 = 250mya to present      (250my)

Six Days of Genesis 1              15.75 billion years


HADEAN EON: from 4.544 to 4.0 billion years ago [see A Brief History of Geologic Time:]


ARCHEAN EON: from 4.0 to 2.5 billion years ago


PROTEROZOIC EON: from 2.5 billion years ago to 541 million years ago.  (2.4 billion years ago, oxygen levels rise.)


PHANEROZOIC Eon: 541 million years ago to present

Paleozoic Era

 (541 million years ago to 252 million years ago)

Cambrian Period: 541 million years ago to 485 million years ago

Ordovician Period: 485 million years ago to 444 million years ago

Silurian Period: 444 million years ago to 419 million years ago

Devonian Period: 419 million years ago to 359 million years ago

Carboniferous Period: 359 million years ago to 299 million years ago

Permian Period: 299 million years ago to 252 million years ago

Mesozoic Era

(252 million years ago to 66 million years ago)

Triassic Period: 252 million years ago to 201 million years ago

Jurassic Period: 201 million years ago to 145 million years ago

Cretaceous Period: 145 million years ago to 66 million years ago

Cenozoic Era

(66 million years ago to present—earliest fossils of man appear 6-7 million years ago)


Was It Six Days or 16 Billion Years?


As Pastor Chuck Smith said, “There are many fine men of God who teach that the earth is young, having only been created less than 10,000 years ago.  One of their strong arguments in favour of a young earth comes from Exodus 20:11, which states, “For in six days the LORD made the heavens and the earth, the sea, and all that is in them.””  But as we have seen, six days by whose “frame of reference”?  If it’s from God’s frame of reference, outside of Space & Time, taking into account Einstein’s Laws of Relativity and Time Dilation, we have clearly seen those six days amounted to 15.75 billion years as observed from our frame of reference, but not God’s.  According to those who promote ‘the Gap Theory,’ a whole series of “re-creations” of life have taken place after the huge E.L.E.’s had destroyed it from off the planet.  So we see that according this Gap Theory, a specific 6-day recreation of life can easily have taken place, using Genesis 1:1-31 as a template for the literal six-day creation account as well.  One template, the smaller 6-literal-day recreation, fits neatly within, inside the larger template for Genesis 1, that of the 6 P.O.T.’s, or epochs, which add up to 15.75 billion years. 


Which Interpretation For Genesis 1:1-31 Is Correct?


  “Creation of the universe and all life, 6 days or 15.75 billion years, Gap Theory with separate creations for each epoch, or Theistic evolution after the specific creation of cellular life 3.5 billion years ago until now, it doesn’t matter—the irreducible complexity found within each living cell proves creation and intelligent design took place at the cellular level, and all at once—whether that be in six days as we count time, or 3.5 billion years ago, as geologists have found.  The method and timing God used after that is totally immaterial beyond the provable specific design and creation of the irreducibly complex internal structure of the living cell.  Different parts of the greater Body of Christ waste precious money, time and effort in their attempts to prove the methods and timing God used to create the universe and all life on earth—and that their pet theory is correct above all the others.  Many of them even refer to other interpretations as blasphemous.  Those who go this far in their dogmatic interpretations only serve to disunite the Body of Christ.  The efforts to add up and try to interpret the geologic evidence, coupled to physics in an honest attempt to interpret Genesis 1:1-31 is perfectly fine, as long as those doing it avoid being totally dogmatic in their interpretation, and instead say “this is our best guess interpretation.”  

Personally, I can see via the irreducible complexity of the internal structure of the living cell, that it was designed and created all at once.  Whether Genesis 1:1-31 was a 15.75 billion year “time-dilated 6 days,” or a literal “6 days,” by our human reckoning of time is immaterial.   Trying to prove one’s own interpretation of Genesis 1:1-31 is correct and everyone else’s is wrong is totally divisive to the greater Body of Christ and a total waste of time and precious resources which could be used for the promotion of the Gospel, which is Jesus’ central command for the Church (cf. Matthew 24:14; 28:18-20).

You’ve just been given three distinct interpretations for Genesis 1:1-31, one literal 24-hour/day creation; the Gap Theory interpretation; and Time-Dilation coupled to “theistic evolution” via God “genetically modifying” all lifeforms from 3.5 billion years ago to the present, through all the geologic Eons, Eras and Periods of Earth’s fossil record.  It does not matter which interpretation you believe, “Young-Earth, Literal”, “Gap-Theory,” or “Time-Dilation coupled to Theistic Evolution,” it will not jeopardize your salvation in any way, if you are a firm believer in a Creator God that created the heaven and the Earth and all lifeforms in it, past and present, and that you’ve accepted Jesus Christ into your life as your Saviour, and God’s Holy Spirit dwells inside of you.  Simply put, you believe that Jesus was born of a virgin, lived a perfect life, died on the cross to pay for your sins, and was resurrected back to life (immortal life) after three days and three nights in the grave, and that he’s coming back to Earth—that is the Gospel in a nutshell.  If you believe that and have accepted Jesus into your life, that is what matters.  It does not matter one single bit which interpretation you believe about Genesis 1:1-31, which by the way, was written in Poetic Hebrew.  Genesis 1 is written, again, in Poetic Hebrew, and merely states that God did the creating—IT IS NOT A PROOF-TEXT PROVING THAT GOD EXISTS OR THAT HIS WORD IS TRUE—FULFILLED PROPHECY, VERIFIABLE IN SECULAR HISTORY BOOKS, IS THE ONLY SOUND PROOF THAT GOD EXISTS AND THAT HIS WORD IS TRUE.  Genesis 1 is a skeletal outline detailing God’s creation of the heavens and Earth and all life found on it at present, and that outline is written in poetic Hebrew.  It is not a proof-text into the scientific creation of the heavens, Earth and all lifeforms, past, and present.  The literalists, God love-‘em, that try to prove that dinosaurs walked with man, are idiots, and waste their time, money and that of others focusing on a subject we’ll all have cleared up at Jesus’ 2nd coming—instead of focusing on what Jesus told us all to be doing, preaching the Gospel to the entire world while there is yet time (cf. Matthew 24:14-15; 28:18-20).  To see solid proof that the Bible is true and that God exists, that his Word is true, see  And considering this past war between Vladimir Putin’s Russian Federation and the Ukraine, there may not be much time left before the great tribulation, World War III.  Let’s not be spending that precious time we have left arguing about whether man walked with dinosaurs or the literal age of the Earth or Universe.

Related links:

“A Brief History Of Earth, Four Billion Years in Eight Chapters” by Andrew H. Knoll 

A Brief History of Geologic Time:

Radiometric dating:

Formation of earth’s solid iron core 550mya aided in protecting life from the Cambrian Period onward, see:


Or order and read “Darwin’s Black Box”(from

To see solid proof that the Bible is true and that God exists, that his Word is true, see

Geology of Earth Before Adam


Was Genesis 1:1-31 Written in a type of Poetic Hebrew, Not Literal?



“One Biblical scholar from way back in the 1890s and early 1900s who evangelicals widely respect, named Milton S. Terry, literally wrote the book on Biblical Hermeneutics, with a book by that title.  Bible scholars look to him as the one who originated the historical-grammatical method of hermeneutics (interpretation). What many of them don't know is that he also wrote a book called Biblical Apocalyptics, in which, while using those now-standard methods, he identified the first 11 chapters of Genesis as "Hebrew Apocalyptics," that is, a form of ancient literature that uses figures and symbols more than historical realities to convey its message.  So that’s one reason to consider those chapters in a non-literal sense so that we can instead focus on what the writer was really trying to say.  In the case of Genesis 1, you have a framework being used that shows three days of “forming” followed by three days of “filling,” with day 1 corresponding to day 4, days 2 to day 5, and day 3 to day 6. All this contributes to a picture the writer is giving us in figurative form, rather than historical or scientific, long before anyone had our modern conceptions of history or science.” (Fred Heeren)


Geology Of The Earth & Its Lifeforms Before Adam


In the sermon transcript that follows in the link below, what I think Dr. Hoeh is stating is that Mr. Armstrong believed God had used angels, those that were under Lucifer to “complete his creation,” meaning the creation of life on earth, terraforming the planet with life, after God’s initial creation of the primitive living cell.  This would have involved genetically modifying lifeforms starting with the cell and going all the way up through complex plant and animal lifeforms, starting in the oceans during the Ediacaran and Cambrian periods, right up to the Cretaceous dinosaur age, and then right up through the bio-engineering of early man to homo sapiens.  Considering what we’ve heard about how Lucifer sought alternatives to God’s way of Give, alternatives that involved competition, lying and murder, when viewing the lifeforms presented to us in the record of the rocks, the fossil record, lifeforms appear to have been designed to compete with each other, violently, instead of peacefully coexisting with each other, like the picture painted for us in Genesis 2, in the Garden of Eden, whose lifeforms, including Adam and Eve, appear to  have been created directly by God, and probably within a literal 6-day span of time.  God would, and this is speculation, we’ll find out if it’s true and to what degree it’s true, but God would present the angels and Lucifer with the schematics for the modifications of lifeforms God wanted to see brought about, as time went along, from one period to the next.  It was those angels carrying out the schematic plans, bio-engineering the changes into those lifeforms, who also bio-engineered into them the way of competition, the way of get, rather than cooperation.

So Dr. Hoeh, by observation of the geologic record, coupled to the Biblical teachings about angels and the devil, what he’s proposing, postulating is that God used the angels who followed Lucifer, who were under his authority, to “theistically evolve,” create, bio-engineering the lifeforms--from beginning to end, right up to, but I’d say not including what God created in the Garden of Eden.  If so, this probably took place after God created the first living cell, cellular life, the cell being a highly complex organism, even the first primitive ones (DNA itself being highly complex).  Thus the cell had to have been created all at once, and by God himself.  Then through genetic “gene-switch-throwing,” all lifeforms to follow essentially were GMO’s, genetically modified organisms, from the pre-Cambrian period, up through all the other periods of time, including the bio-engineering of primitive man.  It’s my guess, that inside of the Garden of Eden, all lifeforms, including that of Adam and Eve, were created directly by God, within six literal days, again, all living within the confines of that Garden, wherever it was.  Outside that Garden were all the lifeforms we find in the Quaternary period, including early man, Denisovians, Neanderthals, Australopithecines, some lines dying off in obvious competition beforehand, others melding in with the last development, the homo sapiens.  DNA from Denisovians and Neanderthals has been found in the modern DNA of humans.  But the line from Adam came through the line of Noah, surviving the Flood, and that line had included within it, through the wives of Noah’s three sons, some of the interbreeding that took place between the sons of Adam and of those homo sapiens who resided outside of the Garden of Eden, thus explaining the trace elements of Neanderthal and Denisovian DNA found in that of modern man.  I am merely putting within Dr. Hoeh’s sermon here updates, bringing what he is saying up to date with modern discoveries, and making his ideas clear, showing their intent where his sermon may not have been that clear.  Dr. Hoeh was a very honest historian, and as you can read here, whenever he found himself to be in error, he corrected that, as he went on in life, teaching and researching at the Worldwide Church of God’s Ambassador Colleges. 

To read Dr. Herman L. Hoeh’s 1977 sermon I’ve titled “The Geology Of The Earth & Its Lifeforms Before Adam”  log onto:


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